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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 10: Nutrients involved in Lecture Energy Metabolism Energy
Outline Outline Role of vitamins in energy metabolism Role pathways pathways B-complex vitamins: thiamin, riboflavin, B-complex vitamin B6, niacin, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin pantothenic Minerals: iron iodine, chromium, Minerals: manganese, sulfur manganese, Reminder from last Lecture Reminder FROM FOOD ENERGY FROM Carbohydrates glucose Carbohydrates Fats (Lipids) fatty acids
Metabolic pathways pathways ATP ATP (common currency) currency) Proteins amino acids Metabolic pathways are catalyzed by enzymes by
Enzymes – proteins (and RNA) that catalyze Enzymes reactions but are not used up or changed during the reaction Coenzyme – a molecule that binds with an enzyme to activate it and help it do its job – “enzyme helper”. B-vitamins play roles as coenzymes. B-vitamins Coenzymes in metabolic pathways Coenzymes B vitamins are components of coenzymes vitamins Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
Part of thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) Part RDA: men 1.2 mg/day Women 1.1 mg/day Toxicity: none known Deficiency: Beriberi, anorexia/weight loss, Deficiency: apathy, decreased short term memory, confusion and irritability, muscle weakness, enlarged heart weakness, Thiamin Common food sources of Common thiamin thiamin
RDA = 1.2-1.1 mg/day RDA whole grain ¾ cup = 2.3 mg Oat bran, raw 1 cup = 1.1 mg Pork loin, cooked = 1.0 mg Ham 3 oz = 0.6 mg Bagel = 0.5 mg Green peas , cooked 1 cup = 0.4 mg Rice, white, cooked = 0.4 mg Riboflavin
Part of coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and FMN (flavin mononucleotide) (FAD) RDA men 1.3 mg/day women 1.1 mg/day Toxicity: none known Deficiency: sore throat; swelling of mouth & Deficiency: throat, dry/cracked lips, inflammation of mucous membrane of the mouth; magenta tongue; anemia, dermatitis tongue; Riboflavin Riboflavin sources
Milk is a good source of riboflavin riboflavin Riboflavin is sensitive to Riboflavin light light Opaque containers protect Opaque riboflavin from light riboflavin Other sources: eggs, Other meats, milk and milk products, broccoli, cereals cereals Niacin
Component of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ , NADH and dinucleotide nicotinamide adenine phosphate (NADP+), nicotinamide DNA replication/repair and cell differentiation RDA: men 16 mg/day women 14 mg/day RDA: women Toxicity: flushing, liver damage, glucose Toxicity: intolerance, blurred vision, eye edema intolerance, Deficiency: pellagra, pigmented rash, Deficiency: vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, bright red tongue, apathy, depression, headache, fatigue, memory loss fatigue, Niacin Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Vitamin
Part of coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) (PLP) Metabolism of homocysteine RDA: 19-50 years old: men & women 1.3 RDA: mg/day mg/day 51 years and older men 1.7 mg/day 51 Women 1.5 mg/day Women Toxicity: sensory neuropathy, skin lesions Deficiency: dermatitis, microcytic anemia, Deficiency: Pyridoxine (B6) Sources of B vitamins Sources Folate Folate
Coenzyme tetrahydrofolate (THF) or tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA) involved in DNA synthesis and amino acid metabolism synthesis Metabolism of homocysteine RDA: men & women = 400 mg/day Toxicity: masking of symptoms of vitamin B12 Toxicity: deficiency, neurological damage deficiency, Deficiency: macrocytic anemia, weakness & Deficiency: fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, headache, palpitations, shortness of breath, elevated levels of homocysteine, neural tube defects in developing fetus tube Folate B12 (cobalamin) B12
Coenzymes involved in formation of blood, nervous system function and homocysteine metabolism metabolism RDA: men & women = 2.4 µ g/day RDA: Toxicity: none known Deficiency: pernicious anemia, pale skin, Deficiency: diminished energy, fatigue, shortness of breath, palpitations, tingling and numbness in extremities, abnormal gait, poor concentration, disorientation, dementia Cyanocobalamin (B12) Pantothenic acid
Component of coA that assist with fatty acid metabolism metabolism RDA: men & women 5 mg/day Toxicity: none known Deficiency: rare Pantothenic acid Sources of B vitamins Sources Biotin
Component of coenzymes involved in CHO, fat and protein metabolism fat RDA: men & women: 30 µ g/day RDA: Toxicity: none known Deficiency: red, scaly skin rash; depression; Deficiency: lethargy; hallucinations; burning, tingling, tickling sensations Enriched ready-to-eat cereals Enriched
Good sources of Bcomplex vitamins % DRI (dietary reference DRI intakes) intakes)
Thiamin 125% Riboflavin 131% Niacin 125% Vitamin B6 154% Folate 168% Pantothenic acid 198% Eat your Total! Minerals in energy metabolism
Iron = component of hemoglobin (blood) and myoglobin(muscle) – carries and delivers oxygen myoglobin(muscle) Iodine = critical component of thyroid hormones Iodine regulate human metabolism regulate Chromium = plays important role in CHO metabolism Manganese = cofactor involved in CHO, fat and Manganese protein metabolism protein Sulfur = component of the B-complex vitamins Sulfur thiamin and biotin thiamin Iron
• RDA • Men 19 years and older 8 mg/day • Women 19-50 years old 18 mg/day –51 and older 8 mg/day –Pregnant 27 mg/day • Too little iron deficiency anemia (pale skin, fatigue, reduced work performance, impaired immune & cognitive response • Too much constipation, GI stress Iron sources
• • • • • • • • Clams – canned Cereals Kellogg Soybean Pork & beans – canned Tomato paste Lentils Spinach Beef • Worldwide deficiencies in vitamins and minerals are recognized: – Iron – Iodine – Zn – Vit A Summary Summary • B-complex vitamins are components of B-complex coenzymes that are involved in metabolic pathways to produce energy pathways • Certain minerals are also involved in energy Certain metabolism metabolism ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2011 for the course NUTRI SCI 10 taught by Professor Amy during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Spring '08