Unformatted text preview: Models of Personality and Abnormal Functioning Abnormal I. Biological Model I. modern version of somatogenic theory sparked by discovery of psychotropic sparked
medication. medication. emphasis on biochemical model emphasis anatomical models also exist, but more anatomical common for “organic mental disorders” common Mental Disorders with established biological basis (examples): biological 1. Schizophrenia overproduction of dopamine 2. Depression 2. insufficient norepinephrine and serotonin Cautions: Cautions: 1. Drug effects do not establish causality 2. Abundance of animal studies 3. Family pedigree studies do not 3.
establish causality establish Applications of the model Applications 1. Psychiatry: models of severe 1.
psychopathology psychopathology 2. Medical Psychology (e.g., stress and 2.
the immune system) the II. Psychodynamic Model II. developed by Freud explains personality development as well explains
as abnormality as 3 major features relevant to abnormal major
psychology psychology 1. Dynamic Forces and Unconscious Processes 1. drives, the libido conflict and the unconscious defense mechanisms protect against expression defense of the drives of unconscious forces cause unexplained behavior treatment = treatment a) make the unconscious conscious b) catharsis through expression of unconscious emotions 2. Three Components of Personality 2. id ego superego 3. Stages of Psychosexual Development 3. oral, 0-18 mos. anal, 18-36 mos. phallic, 3-6yrs. latency, 6-12 yrs. genital CRITIQUE? III Behavioral Model III Application of learning principles to Application
understanding development and development maintenance of pathology maintenance Use of learning-theory-based interventions Use
(treatments) (treatments) Four relevant processes: A. Classical Conditioning A. UCS UCR UCS UCS + CS UCR UCS CS CR (UCR) CS Linked to development of: phobias, fetishes. Treatments: de-conditioning: systematic desensitization de-conditioning: (developed by Wolpe) (developed exposure (flooding) aversive conditioning Classical Conditioning Classical
US Meat US Meat CS Tone + UR Salivate UR Tone Salivate CR Salivate B. Operant Conditioning B. Response Reinforcement ? Response Response reduce Aversive ? Response Response increase Aversive ? Response Linked to development of: Linked addictive behaviors addictive aggression maintenance of phobia Treatments: Extinction Shaping new behavior Shaping and conditioning competing behaviors (not punishment alone) (not C. Modeling C. Learning through imitation Linked to skills development and learned Linked
maladaptive patterns maladaptive (e.g., aggression, depression) (e.g., Treatments: Skills training. D. Cognitive Mediators (go-betweens) D. Stimulus Response Stimulus Stimulus Cognition Response Stimulus Linked to: anxiety as elicitor of self-defeating Linked
cognition cognition Cognitive Models and Family Systems Models Models will discuss later with specific disorders Humanistic and Existentialistic not bases for study of abnormal psychology See book re: Sociocultural Models ...
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