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Unformatted text preview: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-Traumatic
Persistent anxiety symptoms linked to a clear traumatic precipitant Symptoms: Symptoms: 1. Re-experience traumatic event (dreams, flashbacks, obsessive thoughts) 2. Avoidance of anxiety arousing situations 3. Increased arousal, anxiety, guilt 4. Reduced responsiveness – feel “empty” May be immediate or delayed onset May (if lasts less than 1 mo. = “acute distress disorder”) May be exacerbated by social isolation. Treatment of Stress Disorders Treatment Immediate: Disaster (Crisis) Response
1. Normalize response 2. Encourage affective expression 3. Assist with problem solving Long Term: PTSD
1. Goals: - gain perspective on trauma - overcome symptoms overcome 2. Antianxiety and antidepressant medications 2. 3. Exposure treatments (controversial) 4. Supportive therapy to overcome guilt, self-blame, overresponsibility, rage. Psychophysiological Disorders Psychophysiological
1. Actual physical disorders - e.g., migraine, tension headaches, ulcers, hypertension 2. Caused by interaction of physical factors and psychological factors Psychophysiological Disorders – Physical Factors Psychophysiological Disregulation of the autonomic nervous systems Disregulation
Arousal of sympathetic system not regulated by parasympathetic system parasympathetic Causes physical disorders through 3 mechanisms: A) Overactivation of body system A) eventually cause damage eventually - e.g., gastric fluids, elevated blood pressure e.g., B) Breakdown of the immune system B)
- Autonomic nervous system stimulates production of lymphocytes lymphocytes T-helper cells and T-killer cell T-helpers recognize when antigen is present and stimulate T-helpers immune response immune T-killer cells destroy infected cells - Stress hormones (e.g., corticosteroids, cortisol) initially Stress stimulate ANS arousal; stimulate - thus, initially responsible for stimulating production thus, of lymphocytes of - However, ongoing arousal may eventually break down However, effects of lymphocytes effects (e.g., stimulates inhibition of lymphocytes) (e.g., C) Sleep disturbances C) – break down body systems and immune mechanisms break Psychophysiological Disorders Psychophysiological – Psychological Factors
A) Psychosocial stress – particularly when chronic stress A) chronic is uncontrollable, and coping attempts fail uncontrollable and coping - maintains arousal and sense of hopelessness B) Personality style - e.g., “Type A” personality - driven, competitive, work-aholic, perfectionistic, driven, impatient - prone to heart disease, hypertension, stroke C) Poor social support - associated with poor health and mortality Interventions by Pediatric and Health Psychologists Psychologists
Coping strategies for invasive medical procedures or illnesses e.g., burns, sickle cell, chronic pain, hospitalization e.g., - relaxation, distraction, cognitive coping, knowledge relaxation, Increasing compliance with medical treatments Increasing e.g., diabetes and asthma monitoring, diet, medications Biofeedback Biofeedback e.g., for migraines, tension headaches Health promotion and prevention Health e.g., prevention of cigarette smoking, compliance with diet, exercise ...
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- Spring '11
- Abnormal Psychology