jinnah pakistan - Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Founding of...

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Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Founding of Pakistan By: Muhammad Jaffer A. Plan of Investigation Research Question: What were the primary motives of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the ‘ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity’, in declaring that Muslims were a separate nation entitled to ‘autonomous and sovereign’ states in the Lahore Resolution in 1940? The purpose of this investigation is to determine the primary motives of Muhammad Ali Jinnah in declaring that Muslims were to have their own sovereign states in the 1940 Lahore Resolution. I chose this topic because as a Muslim Indian, I have always wondered why Muslims couldn’t live in an undivided India. In order to acquaint myself with the general progression of events in India at the time of Jinnah’s career, from about the early 1920s to the late 1940s, online encyclopedias shall be utilized. Next, a four-year research institution shall be visited to obtain books pertaining to Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Lahore Resolution. An annotated bibliography shall be created to understand the historiographical debate on Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s intentions in declaring Muslim sovereignty. Appropriate evidence shall be noted and analyzed for each viewpoint, after which a conclusion based on the evidence shall be drawn. B. Summary of Evidence I. The Traditional Perspective One viewpoint on Jinnah’s motive of endorsing the declaration of Muslim sovereign states in the Lahore Resolution is that he was resorting to the final option to preserve peace in the Indian subcontinent. The coming-to-power of Hindu revivalist groups in the 1930s such as the Hindu Mahasabha, whose leader Madhav Golwalkar proclaimed such statements as “if German Jews could be exterminated by Hitler, so could the Indian Muslims by Hindus” (Ahmed 67), led Jinnah to worry about the future safety of Muslims in their minority provinces. These fears were confirmed by heavy riots throughout the period from 1930 to 1940 (Ahmed 82); just in Bombay, Jinnah’s city of residence
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(Ahmed 68), 550 were killed and 4500 were injured (Ambedkar 174) [see appendix 1]. Saad Khairi holds that before Congress assumed its role as the sole party representing the Indian nation in the elections of 1937, Jinnah was hopeful that he could negotiate an appropriate settlement for Muslims; the elections changed his mind (315). When the Congress came to power, it did little to mediate conflicts in its provinces when Muslims were oppressed; this is illustrated by the fact that under Jinnah, the Muslim League published three reports of grievances against Hindu extremist groups between 1938 and 1939 that the Congress simply dismissed (Wolpert 168). Akbar Ahmed argues that the declaration of the song “Bande Mataram” from the anti-Muslim novel Anandamath as the national anthem, as well as the rejection of separate electorates and weighting of minorities for Muslims, underscored the clear bias that the Congress had in favor of Hindus, despite declaring equal representation (66-69). It was for these reasons that Jinnah began criticizing the Congress’ partiality in
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2011 for the course CHM 2051 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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jinnah pakistan - Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Founding of...

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