The process of arranging people and other resources to work together to
accomplish a goal.
One aspect of organizing is arranging the work flow to maximize
effectiveness and efficiency. For instance, a dry cleaning business has stations: 1) the
counter, at the front of the store, where customers are greeted as they enter; 2) the
sorting station, where clothing taken at the counter is sorted into shirts (which are
laundered) and dry cleaning items (which are treated chemically and then put into the
dry cleaning machine); 3) the pressing station, where clothes are neatly pressed; and 4)
the bagging station, where clothes are checked for lint and stains before they are
prepared for pick-up by customers./ Another key facet of organizing is scheduling
employees, or deciding who will be working at what time to ensure proper coverage and,
by extension, goal accomplishment. At a restaurant, for example, the weekly schedule
indicates when cooks, servers, and busboys will be working.
dividing a job into smaller and smaller tasks; although
specialization can yield higher efficiency and output, because an employee who
performs a very small (highly specialized) job repeatedly will do so competently, the
employee may experience boredom and alienation.
At a salon with high task
specialization, each employee performs just a few circumscribed tasks – such as
dusting, changing the filters in the machines, taking out the garbage, restocking the desk
with paper towels and wash cloths, sweeping, vacuuming, or mopping./ At a bakery
where specialization is low, each person works on an entire type of baked good (e.g.,
muffins, cookies, cupcakes, or pies) from start to finish. .
The process of grouping together people and jobs into work
units. Organizations are departmentalized by functional or divisional structure:
groups together people with similar skills who perform similar
A pharmaceutical company has departments for product research and
development, manufacturing, and marketing./In an orchestra, the string players are in
one section, the woodwinds are in another, the brass are in another, and the
percussionists are in another.
groups together people working on the same product, or with
similar consumers, or in the same region, or on the same processes:
A craft store is organized such that drawing supplies are found in
one aisle, needlecrafts are found in another aisle, wood crafts are found in another aisle,