geology lecture

geology lecture - Lecture notes 1/5/09 Reading tips look at...

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Lecture notes 1/5/09 Reading tips look at objectives- do questions look at pictures and figures skim text Geology- study of the earth physical geology historical geology subdisciplines Where do geologist work? Oil and gas mining consulting engineering ground water resources Government basic research large projects education law buisness Lecture notes 1/7/09 Structure of the earths interior and features of the exterior Layers crust, mantle, core- based of chemical composition of the layers(diff elements) segregated due to gravity Lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer core, inner core- based on physical (solid, liquid etc.) lithosphere is solid rock- includes the crust and little of the mantle- smallest radius 100 to 200 km Asthenosphere is like silly putty- plastic Mesosphere- solid outer core- liquid- greatest radius- 5150 km inner core- solid some are rock solid and some are liquid because of the pressure and temperature differences core is most dense, while crust is least dense more dense at the core because gravity pulls to the center of the earth so the denser things are going to sink faster while the lightest stuff end up on the surface ocean crust and continental crust are mainly made up of Si and O mantle made of Fe, Mg, Si, O core made of Ni, Fe Phase Diagram- in other notes know layers of the figure in class Lecture 1/9/09 Atmosphere gases- oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide
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nitrogen comes from out of the mantel Oceans water present when planet condensed from solar nebula volcanoes- 88% consisted of water Main features of the Continents folded mountain belt- mountains with valleys shield- made up of metamorphic rocks that are highly deformed and are intruded by igneous rocks stable platforms- basement rocks are covered by thin sequence of flat sedimentary rocks Ocean floors ocean ridge rift valley fracture zone trench abyssal floor abyssal plain- enough sediment to bury the hills abyssal hills seamount- underwater mountains- occur in chains and are volcanic origin continental margins- rocks underneath belong to the continents Elevation of crust mount everest is highest (8.8 km) while mariana trench is lowest (-11.0 km) with .84 km being the main land suface Systems- systems are at war driven by heat radiation- from the sun that can transfer energy through a vaccuum, no medium required and there is no mass exchanged conduction- heat transfer through a solid, no mass exchanged convection- heat transfer in liquids and gases, mass IS exchanged (movement of mass) ex: bubbling oil in a pan (heats, than cools and heats up again) makes hydrosphere move, reason why earth is always changing Tectonic system- external heat, convection Hydrologic system- takes away- tries to wear away what tectonic system is building
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2011 for the course GEOL 100 taught by Professor Dr.ruppert during the Winter '09 term at BYU.

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geology lecture - Lecture notes 1/5/09 Reading tips look at...

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