Geo101.14.CrustalDeform[1]

Geo101.14.CrustalDeform[1] - Crustal Deformation What do we...

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1 Crustal Deformation What do we mean by crustal deformation …rocks bend, rocks break… Deformation produces geologic structures called joints (cracks), faults (fractures), folds (beds and wrinkles), and foliation (realignment of mineral grains) During deformation, rocks squash, stretch, bend, and break in response to squeezing, stretching and/or shearing Mountain Building or Orogenic deformation With the exception of hotspot volcanoes, mountains tend not to occur as isolated structures, but occur in linear ranges, called mountain or orogenic belts. What controls the location of Orogenic Belts? The interaction of plate boundaries… Plate margin and intraplate deformation
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2 Divergent margins Continental Rifts Basin and Range a plunging syncline a Dome shearing thrusting draping Fig. 4.25 Divergent--plates move apart Fig. 4.6a Convergent margins Oceanic - continental a plunging syncline a Dome shearing thrusting draping Convergent margins - Continental - continental collisions a plunging syncline a Dome compression shearing thrusting draping Various rocks form during an orogeny… a plunging syncline a Dome compression shearing thrusting draping
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3 What exactly happens at plate boundaries Strain • Pressure or Compression • Tension (pulling apart) • Shear What happens as a result … • Faulting and Earthquakes • Structural uplift • Basin formation • Volcanoes Mountain Building Earth’s orogenic belts have a limited lifetime… an orogeny or mountain building event can begin, last for 10’s of millions of years, then abruptly cease Likewise, in 10’s of millions of years, erosion can remove much of the land uplifted during the orogeny, lowering it back to sea-level
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2011 for the course GEOLOGY 939 taught by Professor Swisher during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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Geo101.14.CrustalDeform[1] - Crustal Deformation What do we...

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