com155_Ch27 - Part Five Other Grammar Concerns 27 Pronouns...

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Unformatted text preview: Part Five Other Grammar Concerns 27. Pronouns 495 28. Adjectives and Adverbs 517 29. Misplaced and Dangling Modifi ers 531 30. Coordination and Subordination 539 31. Parallelism 553 32. Sentence Variety 563 33. Formal English and ESL 582 EDITING ESSAYS ¡ ¡ 495 27 Pronouns Using Substitutes for Nouns Understand What Pronouns Are Pronouns replace nouns (or other pronouns) in a sentence so that you do not have to repeat the nouns. her Tessa let me borrow Tessa’s jacket. He You have met Carl. Carl is my cousin. The noun (or pronoun) that a pronoun replaces is called the ante- cedent. The word antecedent means “something that comes before.” In most cases, a pronoun refers to a specifi c antecedent nearby. I fi lled out the form. It was complicated. Antecedent Pronoun replacing antecedent There are three basic types of pronouns — subject pronouns, object pronouns, and possessive pronouns. Note the pronouns in the following sentences. Object Subject The linebacker tackled him, and he went down hard. Possessive His shoulder was injured. ^ ^ ■ IDEA JOURNAL Write about some- thing you did with friends recently. ¡ EDITING ESSAYS 496 Part Five • Other Grammar Concerns Pronoun Types SUBJECT OBJECT POSSESSIVE First person (singular/plural) I/we me/us my, mine/ our, ours Second person (singular/plural) you/you you/you your, yours/ your, yours Third person (singular) he, she, it him, her, it his, her, hers, its Third person (plural) they who/who them whom/whom their, theirs whose Language Note: Notice that pronouns have gender ( he/she, him/ her, his/her/hers ). The pronoun must agree with the gender of the noun it refers to. INCORRECT Tonya lives with his cousin. CORRECT Tonya lives with her cousin. Also, notice that English has different forms for subject and object pronouns, as shown in the preceding chart. PRACTICE 1 IDENTIFYING PRONOUNS In each of the following sentences, circle the pronoun, underline the ante- cedent (the noun to which the pronoun refers), and draw an arrow from the pronoun to the antecedent. EXAMPLE: My uncle is a hardworking entrepreneur who knew he could succeed with a business loan. 1. Many poor people don’t feel as if they can depend on big banks. 2. A bank in an underdeveloped area, however, needs to fi nd customers wherever it can. ■ For more practice with pronouns, visit Exercise Central at bedfordstmartins .com/realessays . ¡ EDITING ESSAYS Chapter 27 • Pronouns 497 3. Microlending has become a popular banking trend. It has helped people in impoverished neighborhoods all over the world. 4. Microlending has succeeded because it involves lending very small amounts of money. 5. Many poor owners of small businesses use microlending to help them get their start....
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com155_Ch27 - Part Five Other Grammar Concerns 27 Pronouns...

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