com155_Ch40 - 40 Other Punctuation Understand What...

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705 40 Other Punctuation ; : ( ) — - Understand What Punctuation Does Punctuation helps readers understand your writing. If you use punctua- tion incorrectly, you send readers a confusing message — or, even worse, a wrong one. This chapter covers F ve marks of punctuation that people sometimes use incorrectly. Knowing what these marks do in a sentence can help you avoid such mistakes. SEMICOLON ; Joins two independent clauses into one sentence Separates complete items in a list that already has commas within individual items COLON : Introduces a list Announces an explanation or example PARENTHESES ( ) Set off extra information that is not essential to the sentence DASH — Sets off words for emphasis Indicates a pause HYPHEN - Joins two or more words that together form a single description Shows a word break at the end of a line IDEA JOURNAL Write to someone about to enter your college, giving him or her f ve good pieces oF advice. To understand this chapter, you need to know what sentences and inde- pendent clauses are. ±or a review, see Chapters 22 and 24. ¡
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706 Part Seven • Punctuation and Capitalization Practice Using Punctuation Correctly Semicolon ; Semicolons to Join Independent Clauses (Sentences) Use a semicolon to join very closely related sentences and make them into one sentence. In an interview, hold your head up and don’t slouch ; it is important to look alert. Make good eye contact ; looking down is not appropriate in an interview. Language Note: Do not use a comma instead of a semicolon to join two independent clauses: That would create a run-on (see Chapter 24). Semicolons When Items in a Series Contain Commas Use a semicolon to separate list items that themselves contain commas. Otherwise, it is difF cult for readers to tell where one item ends and an- other begins. I have a cousin who lives in Devon, England ; another cousin who lives in Derry, New Hampshire ; and a third cousin who lives in ±reeport, Maine. Colon : Colons before Lists Use a colon to introduce a list after an independent clause. In the United States, three ice cream fl avors are the most popular : vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry. I have three stops to make on the way home : the grocery store, the post ofF ce, and the police station. Colons before Explanations or Examples Use a colon after an independent clause to let readers know that you are about to provide an explanation or example of what you just wrote. If the explanation or example is also an independent clause, capitalize the F rst letter after the colon. For more on using
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com155_Ch40 - 40 Other Punctuation Understand What...

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