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lecture7 - Physics 126 Lecture 7 Feb 28 March 2 2011...

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M.Loy, H. B. Chan 1 Physics 126 Lecture 7 Feb 28, March 2 2011 Quantization of Matter - Evidences for Atomic (Microscopic) Nature of Matter square6 Crookes Tube and the discoveries of X-Ray (1895), Radioactivity (Becquerel 1896), Discovery of Radium (Curie 1898) square6 Determination of charge to mass ratio of electron and the ‘Plum Pudding Model’ (J.J. Thomson, 1897) square6 Determination of Avogadro’s number and the confirmation of the existence of atoms (J.B. Perrin, 1909) square6 Measurement of the electron charge – quantized (R. Millikan, 1909) square6 α particle scattering and the nucleus of atom (E. Rutherford, 1911)
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M.Loy Sp2010 2 Key Discoveries leading to the new Quantum Mechanics box4 Plan for the next 4 lectures square6 Lec 7: Electrons, X-Ray, Radioactivity, evidences for the atomic nature of matter, atomic nucleus ( Quantization of Matter ) square6 Lec 8: Statistical Mechanics and Radiation (light): energy is ‘quantized’ Quantization of Light . square6 Lec 9: X-Ray diffraction and X-Ray spectra. Radiation (light) is wave ! Compton scattering Radiation is particle square6 Lec 10: Matter is wave . Particle – Wave duality for Matter . Theory and experiment. Need of a new (quantum) mechanics Matter wave. Particle as wave in a 1D box.
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M.Loy, H. B. Chan 3 Two Broad Themes: What is Matter? What is Radiation (light)? What is Matter? Electrons, Radioactivity, atomic nature of matter, atomic nucleus ( Quantization of Matter) What is radiation (including light, infra red heat wave, etc)? Statistical Mechanics and Radiation (light): Energy is ‘quantized’ Quantization of Light . X-Ray diffraction and X-Ray spectra . Radiation (light) is wave ! Compton scattering Radiation is particle! Einstein’s quantum theory of radiation. Radiation is particle with energy and momentum! Particle – Wave duality for light Matter is wave . Particle – Wave duality for matter The New Quantum Mechanics
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M.Loy Sp2010 4 Meaning of ‘Quantum’ box4 Quantum: From Latin “quantus,” meaning “how much box4 In Physics, a quantum ( pl. quanta) is the smallest quantity of some physical property. This property is then said to be ‘quantized’. For example, ‘quantization of matter’, which will be covered in this lecture, means matters are made of atoms – the smallest quantity of matter. box4 Quantum is also used as an adjective such as in Quantum Theory, Quantum Mechanics, etc, which refer generally to what we will cover in the rest of the course.
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M.Loy Sp2010 5 Key Discoveries leading to the new Quantum Mechanics (cont.) box4 Covers the time period 1899 – 1926 square6 The history of physics during this period is very interesting, and the dates of the discovery will be given for your information. square6 A lot of the discoveries were awarded Nobel prizes. square6 We will discuss the discoveries in chronological order.
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