Philosophy - P hilosophyNotes AftermidtermtoFinal March 16...

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Philosophy Notes  After midterm to Final March 16 & 18 2010 I. After Aristotle but Before Descartes -Humanistic perspective -what is like to be a human -Frances Bacon (1561-1626) -scientific revolution -new method eventually scientific method -Hobbes (1588-1679) -Descartes (1590-1650) -convinced monks he needed to sleep until noon -Scholasticism -empirical evidence (after Aristotle) -dialectical observation II. Descartes - #1 Mediation -mediations on metaphysics A. Dream argument (empirical evidence) -don’t realize in the dream that you are dreaming, you take it real and realize that you are dreaming after you wake up -if it was a dream than the evidence is false questioning competence of our perceptions. -how do we know that it really happened or something exists? -always some room for doubt 1. I often have perceptions very much like the ones that I usually have in sensation while I am dreaming. -dream the same things that happen when I’m awake 2. There are no definite or absolute signs to distinguish dreams experience from reality 3. There for it is possible that I am dreaming right now and all my perceptions are false B. Evil Demon argument/ Evil genius (dialectical observation) -thought experiment -could be such an evil demon that the world is really like it is only because it’s a deception -logical inferences as well as real artifacts -making you make mistakes that you are not aware of 1. We can believe that there is an all-powerful demon, who has created the reality
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2. Demon has the power to make us be deceived even about all matters (even matters about mathematical knowledge, logical inferences, and materials) 3. Therefore it is possible that we are deceived even about all. (Above)
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Philosophy - P hilosophyNotes AftermidtermtoFinal March 16...

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