Review Sheet Spring '10 - Review Sheet Pre-Socratics Thales...

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Review Sheet Pre-Socratics: Thales- Arguably, the beginning of Western Philosophy. Based conclusions about the world not on appeals to authority (i.e. like people like Hesiod did with the Theogony ), but rather attempted to reason about the empirical evidence he had. Was searching for an archē , a fundamental principle, or substance, of composition out of which the world is made. Archē =water Pythagoras- Also concerned with an archē. The archē was the body of numbers; numbers and mathematics were held virtually sacrosanct (i.e. quasi-divine). Presumably these numbers had some kind of geometric shape to them. Heraclitus- Also concerned with an archē. Archē=logos Moreover, things were unions of opposites which are always in strife, or conflict, with one another (the road up and down are one and the same road). The result of this is that the world is constantly in flux; things are always coming to be and they never are.
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