chapter 13 - Chapter 13- Therapy I. Therapy through Ages...

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Chapter 13- Therapy I. Therapy through Ages A.) History of Therapy - a person’s bizarre behavior is accountable for demon’s that has possessed the person’s body - Trephining- chipping a hole in the skull to let the demon out -Hippocrates—physical and psychological disorders have natural causes (black bile, blood, phlegm, and yellow bile) high black bile= melancholia ( severe depression) a.) Asylums and Hospitals -16 th and 17 th century if you had psychological disorders you were a witch -“witches” were often brutally tortured and frequently killed -St. Mary Bethlehem Hospital in London (mental patients were kept in chains and slept on straw beds) -weekends people could pay a penny to amuse themselves by watching insane people b.) Moral Therapy -in 18 th century in Paris mental ill patients were chained to the walls -Philippe Pinel (1 st to argue that mentally ill patients need human care and treatment) -mental hospitals should function to help the insane - moral management or moral therapy- the belief that providing a humane and relaxed environment could produce positive changes in a persons behavior -Benjamin Rush (introduced moral therapy to Philadelphia’s Pennsylvania Hospital) “Father of American Psychiatry” -1 st hospital in the USA with separate unit for mentally ill -Tranquilizer Chair--- for patients suffering from mania c.) State Mental Hospitals -mid 19 th century Dorothea Dix—teacher, became concerned with homeless and disturbed people -she insisted that states had an obligation to provide care for the mentally ill -she convinced 20 states to establish or enlarge mental hospitals -institutions got larger the more restrains were used d.) New Forms of Treatment -Franz Anton Mesmer -believed he could harness this magnetism as a form of therapy to treat patients (involved into hypnotism) -Freud -notion that psychological disorders result from unconscious feelings and conflicts -Early in the 20 th century general paresis- (included symptoms of paralysis and memory difficulties, was found in a result of syphilis e.) Deinstitutionalization -in 1950’s mental hospital populations declined -use of drugs to control many symptoms
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-community care is more effective than hospitalization -1960’s courts restrict the groups for committing people to hospitals; states could involuntarily commit patients only if they were judged to be dangerous
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chapter 13 - Chapter 13- Therapy I. Therapy through Ages...

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