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Psychology chapter 9 Notes

Psychology chapter 9 Notes - Psychology chapter 9 Notes I...

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Psychology chapter 9 Notes I. Basic issues in developmental psychology *John B. Watson (1924) the impact of the environment on development that he could train any child. Ex: to become doctors, lawyers, artists, or even thief a.) Nature and nurture -behavior genetics found that heredity plays a role in intelligence b.) Research Methods -longitudinal, cross-sectional, sequential studies, and cohort *longitudinal allows researchers to see behavioral trends that develop over time *cross-sectional allows the researcher to answer a specific question at a particular point in time *cohorts research can tell from people born in 1950 from 1990 the difference in the shyness II. Development from conception to birth *the zygote moves from the fallopian tubes to the uterus (womb), and attaches itself to the inner wall. *through mitosis the zygote reproduces itself…dividing itself for the next 9 months *from the 2 nd to 9 th week after fertilization (major organs develop) the human is developing to an embryo a.) Heredity -46 chromosomes, arranged in 23 pairs -Chromosomes carry genes (DNA) deoxyribonucleic acid -Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) conducted experiments using peas *conclusion came to that offspring’s plant’s traits were note not just Blends of the parent plant’s traits *each plant carries heredity given off to offspring *came up with the fact there are genes and they are in the chromosomes and that they have dominant and recessive traits -Polygenic Heredity *ex: skin color, intelligence, and temperament -Determination of Sex -sex of a child is determined from the father -the ovum always produces an X chromosome, males are X or Y -Sex-Linked Traits -the sex chromosomes (x or y) -X chromosome is much larger than the Y chromosome b.) Prenatal Development -6 to 8 weeks if the embryo secretes testosterone -from 9 th week to birth the baby is an fetus -3 rd month the fetus is 3 inches long and one ounce, 6 th month the fetus Is 14 inches and about 2lbs -fetus is in the amniotic sac (98%-99% water) which protects the fetus -placenta allows nutrients to go from the mother to the fetus -Barriers to prenatal development -if the women diet is inadequate baby is likely to be premature 37weeks -US is 40 for infant death, because of bad prenatal care or $ -Teratogen
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-factors that affect the child drugs, alcohol, viruses Ex: rubella, 11 weeks of younger destine for birth defects -Drugs -all drugs pass the placenta freely Ex: harmful drugs include-tetracycline, barbiturates, vitamins A and B6, as well as Accutane -Smoking -Fetal Tobacco Syndrome, retarded fetal growth, low birth weight, and hyperactivity -18% of pregnant women in USA smoke cigarettes -Alcohol -causes learning and developmental problems EX: low birth weight, small head, mental retardation -fetal alcohol syndrome EX: small head, flat midface, hearing loss, low intelligence -Ultrasound -high pitches sounds to the fetus (20,000 cycles per second) -ultrasound computes the sonar waves into a sonogram -Amniocentesis -Procedure can be done 14-16 weeks after conception -analysis of chromosomes can reveal many genetic things
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Psychology chapter 9 Notes - Psychology chapter 9 Notes I...

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