Study Guide

Study Guide - Study Guide Chapter 3 Culture...

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Study Guide * Society-people who interact, usually in a defined territory, and shared in a culture *Culture- learned and included the sum of practices, languages, beliefs, values, ideologies, and material objects that people created to deal with real life problems -Culture is shared, learned (socialization), take for granted, symbolic And changes throughout different societies -you are not born with culture you are taught it -Defining Culture - high culture-culture consumed mainly by upper classes - popular culture- culture consumed by all classes -Basic Characteristics of Culture -Cultural Universals -Innovations- (changes) -Globalization- (powerful countries shape culture) -Technology- (internet influences culture) -Diffusion- (transmitted across cultures) -Culture Types -Human-nature: How humans dominate nature-beyond technology -Superior (Man)- Inferior (Man): one societies way is better than another -Man-Machine: Intellectual refinement -Counter vs. Subcultures -subculture- own set of norms and values that go by culture within a culture -counter- alienate themselves, are completely different from mainculture Ex: the Hippies *William F. Ogburn (1922) *Material vs. Nonmaterial Culture - Material-composed of the tools and techniques that enable people to get t Tasks accomplished - Non-material- symbols, norms, and other non tangible elements in culture -Take form of ideology (system of concepts and relationships that includes An understanding of cause and effect) - Culture Lag- symbolic culture to change slowly that material culture (Causes cultural wars… Iraq War) -Values- moral beliefs -Socialization- a person internalizes the values, beliefs, and norms of a society and learns to function as a member of that society -Norms- how values tell us how to act -Cultural Scripts- modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural, but shape our concepts and beliefs in a society * Globalization -separate economies, states, and cultures are tied together and people are becoming aware of their growing independence. * Ethnocentrism -seeing things from one’s own cultural point of view and the belief that its right
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And only relevant point of view -Benefits: Nationalism, group solidarity -Consequences: overt political conflict - Cultural Relativism- (Ruth Benedict) we should recognize differences across cultures without passing judgment on or assigning values to those differences *Elements of Culture - Language -Abstract system of symbols and rules together to make communication -allows to share understandings, experiences, knowledge, and make future -includes words, numbers, symbols, and non-verbal communication -Sapir-Wolf Theory -symbolic integrationists -our experiences in the environment forms concepts about those things - Symbols -anything that carries a particular meaning (including the components of Language, math and signs) - Norms -accepted way of doing things -Folkways , mores, and beliefs -formal (laws) and informal (everyday rules) *Social Control
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Study Guide - Study Guide Chapter 3 Culture...

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