Class06-ClassSlides-Spring 2011-03312011

Class06-ClassSlides-Spring 2011-03312011 - Genetic Analysis...

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1 Genetic Analysis II (385) – Population Genetics Lecture 06 Date: 03/31/11 Instructor: Professor Derek Gordon Office: Life Sciences Building, Room 128 Phone: 445-3386 Phone: 445 3386 E-mail: [email protected] Office Hours: Tues, Thurs: 12:00pm – 1:15pm, and by appt. 3/31/2011 2
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2 Deviations from HWE In HWE, and only in HWE are the genotype frequencies a function of the allele frequencies. The rest of a function of the allele frequencies. The rest of population genetics describes what happens to allele frequencies and genotype frequencies over generations when panmixia conditions do not apply! Allele frequencies and genotype frequencies will either change (C) or remain the same UC) 3/31/2011 3 change (C) or remain the same (UC). Allele Freq. genotype Freq. Examples Unchanged Unchanged •Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium •Mutational Equilibrium •Selection Equilibrium Uh d Ch d D i ti f R d M ti Unchanged Changed •Deviations from Random Mating •Inbreeding •Assortative mating Changed Changed •Migration •Mutation •Drift •Founder Effect Selection 3/31/2011 4 •Selection Changed Unchanged DOES NOT OCCUR !!!* * Since allele freq. is dependent on genotype freq., if allele freq. changes genotype frequency must always change .
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3 Inbreeding 3/31/2011 5 DEVIATION FROM RANDOM MATING Inbreeding : this is the mating together of close relatives; more technically it is the probability that the individual is homozygous and that the two alleles at a locus are identical by descent (IBD). Identical by Descent : If one could trace the "ancestry" of two particular alleles, you would discover that they are meiotic copies of a single allele. This is differentiated from alleles that are Identical by State . 3/31/2011 6 Identical by State: The alleles have the same DNA sequence but they are (possibly) copies of different ancestral alleles. That is, they may have arisen by separate mutation events.
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4 Identical by descent Individual has two b alleles that are IBD. 3/31/2011 7 Identical by state Two unrelated individuals have a b allele but these alleles are not necessarily meiotic copies but these alleles are not necessarily meiotic copies. 3/31/2011 8
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5 Inbreeding increases risk of recessive phenotypes If family has rare recessive lethal or sub- lethal genes, the probability of two recessive alleles coming together increases dramatically in consanguineous marriages.
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course GENETICS 385 taught by Professor Brennemanandgordon during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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Class06-ClassSlides-Spring 2011-03312011 - Genetic Analysis...

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