english - Europeans Dutch Scandinavians Germans French...

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We share a particular writing system with many  Europeans and others around the world We share certain linguistic roots with most  Europeans We share strong linguistic similarities with  northwestern Europeans Dutch Scandinavians Germans French
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Romania Korea
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Was adapted to many different languages through  the use of accents (diacritical marks) and letter  combinations The same thing happened when other writing  systems diffused to populations that spoke  different languages Cyrillic Arabic
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Language family  The most general grouping of languages A map of language families creates the fewest reasonable  number of linguistic regions Language subfamily A more specific category than language family Reflects a high degree of similarity between languages Language Generally not intelligible to non-speakers Dialect A regionally-specific way of speaking a language--includes  characteristic vocabulary, grammar, and expressions Intelligible (most of the time) to those who speak other dialects of  the same language
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Highly simplified by grouping languages into  language families  and  language subfamilies More than 6000 languages still exist, though this number is declining rapidly
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Indo-Europeans a group of people who  expanded through Europe  by 2000 BC from  Southeastern Europe or  Central Asia, mixing with  local peoples and initiating  the diffusion of agriculture,  the wheel, the use of the  horse, and other cultural  innovations Why did some words  become more  standardized?
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Words from various sources come together in  English like the ingredients of a Tequila Sunrise ...  vocabulary, grammar & pronunciation (accent)  differentiate these layers or "registers"  Layers are also traces of various phases of  linguistic diffusion There is a history behind the layering There is a geography behind the layering
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The same language is used in ways that range  from casual to formal What register is associated with the following? Chatting at the caf é ? Talking to a bank teller? Writing about research  findings? Leaving a phone message  for a family member? Presenting a news report? Writing a letter to the  newspaper?
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The same language is used in ways that range  from casual to formal What register is associated with the following? Chatting at the caf é ? Informal Talking to a bank teller? Formal Writing about research  findings?
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