Chemistry - 15.6: Finding the [H3O+] and pH of Acidic...

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15.6: Finding the [H 3 O + ] and pH of Acidic Solutions Because strong acids, by definition, are completely ionized in solution, and because we can (in most cases) ignore the contribution of the ionization of water, the concentration of H 3 O + in a strong acid solution is simply equal to the concentration of the strong acid. o Ex: A .10M HCl solution means the [H 3 O + ] is .10 Finding the pH of a weak acid solution is more complication because the weak acid only partially ionizes which means you have to use the ICE table method. o Ex: A .10M Acetic acid solution means the [H 3 O + ] is less than .10 15.6: Percent Ionization of a Weak Acid We can quantify the ionization of a weak acid based on the percentage of acid molecules that actually ionize. This useful quantity is called the percent ionization. o % ionization = [H 3 O + ] equil / [HA] init * 100% The [H 3 O + ] of a weak acid at equilibrium increases with increasing initial concentration of the acid. The percent ionization of a weak acid decreases with increasing concentration of the acid. 15.7: Base Solutions A strong base is a base that completely dissociates in solution. o Most strong bases are group 1A or group 2A (slightly soluble) hydroxides. LiOH, NaOH, KOH, [Sr(OH) 2 ], [Ca(OH) 2 ], [Ba(OH) 2 ] o Unlike diprotic acids, which ionizes in two steps, bases containing two OH - ions dissociate in one step. A weak base is analogous to a weak acid. Unlike strong bases that contain OH
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Chemistry - 15.6: Finding the [H3O+] and pH of Acidic...

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