scotty 6 - Chemistry Study Guide 16.2 Buffer Solutions A...

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Chemistry Study Guide 16.2: Buffer Solutions A buffer solution resists pH change by neutralizing added acid or added base (small amounts. o Contains significant amounts of both a WA + CB or WB + CA The weak acid neutralized added base. The conjugate base neutralized added acid. o Works as long as the amount of acid or base added is significantly less than the amount of the other. 16.2: Calculating the pH of a Buffer Solution To find the pH of a buffer solution you can use ICE tables or the Henderson- Hasselbalch Equation: pH of buffer = pKa + log ( [base] / [acid] ) Use this only when the x is small approximation can be made. o Only valid when the initial concentration are not too dilute and the K a is fairly small. The tendency for a common ion to decrease the solubility of an ionic compound or to decrease the ionization of a weak acid or weak base resulting in a less acidic solution and a higher pH is known as the common ion effect (720). 16.2: Calculating pH Changes in a Buffer Solution In order to calculate the pH change in a buffer solution you must take a two part approach: o Stoichiometry – using the stoichiometry of the neutralization equation to calculate the changes in the amounts (in moles) of the buffer components upon addition of the acid or base (similar to ICE, but with moles). o Equilibrium – using the new amounts of buffer components to work an equilibrium problem to find pH (you can use the HH equation). When calculating the pH of a buffer after adding small amounts of acid or base, remember: o Adding a small amount of strong acid to a buffer converts a stoichiometric amount of the base to the conjugate acid.
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 2400 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Georgia State.

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scotty 6 - Chemistry Study Guide 16.2 Buffer Solutions A...

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