scotty 7 - Chem1212K 11.1 Intermolecular Forces...

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11.1 – Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces – attractive forces that exist between all molecules and atoms. o Holds many liquids and solids such as water and ice together. Thermal energy – A type of kinetic energy associated with the temperature of an object, arising from the motion of individual atoms or molecules in the object. o When thermal energy is high relative to intermolecular forces, matter tends to be gaseous. o When thermal energy is low relative to intermolecular forces, matter tends to be liquid or solid. 11.2 – Solids, Liquids, and Gases: A Molecular Comparison When looking at the three phases of water, notice that the densities of the solid and liquid phases are much greater than the density of the gas phase. o The solid and liquid phases are more similar in density and molar volume to one another than they are to the gas phase. o Solid is slightly less dense than liquid (atypical behavior) Most solids are slightly denser than their corresponding liquids because the molecules move closer together upon freezing. A major difference between liquids and solids is that liquids are more free in movement due to thermal energy. Properties of Liquids: o Liquids have high densities in comparison to gases. o Liquids have an indefinite shape and assume the shape of their container. o Liquids have a definite volume, they are not easily compressed. Properties of Solids: o Solids have high densities in comparison to gases. o Solids have a definite shape; they do not assume the shape of their container. o Solids have a definite volume; they are not easily compressible. o Solids may be crystalline (ordered) or amorphous (disordered). Table 11.2 – Properties of the Phases of Matter Phase Density Shape Volume Strength of Intermolecular Forces* Gas Low Indefinite Indefinite Weak Liquid High Indefinite Definite Moderate Solid High Definite Definite Strong *Relative to thermal energy Crystalline – the atoms or molecules that compose them are arranged in a well- ordered three-dimensional array (diamond). Amorphous – the atoms or molecules that compose them have no long-range order (charcoal). One phase of matter can be transformed to another by changing the temperature,
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scotty 7 - Chem1212K 11.1 Intermolecular Forces...

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