scotty 10 - Chemistry Notes 12.1 Solutions Solution a...

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Chemistry Notes 12.1 – Solutions Solution – a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. Also has at least two components. o Solvent – the majority component. o Solute – the minority component. Substance that dissolves 12.2 – Types of Solutions and Solubility Aqueous solutions – contain water as the solvent, and a solid, liquid, or gas as the solute. The solubility of a substance is the amount of the substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent. Common Types of Solutions Solution Phase Solute Phase Solvent Phase Example Gaseous solution Gas Gas Air (mainly oxygen and nitrogen) Liquid solution Gas Liquid Solid Liquid Liquid Liquid Club Soda (CO2 and water) Vodka (ethanol and water) Seawater (salt and water) Solid solution Solid Solid Brass (copper and zinc) and other alloys Equilibrium: rate of dissolving = rate of crystallization The tendency to mix is related, rather, to a concept called entropy. Entropy is a measure of energy randomization or energy dispersal in a system. Intermolecular forces exist between the solvent and solute particles, the solvent particles themselves, and the solute particles themselves. Relative Interactions and Solution Formation o If solvent-solute interactions are greater than or comparable to the solvent- solvent and solute-solute interactions then a solution forms. o If solvent-solute interactions equal solvent-solvent and solute-solute interactions then a solution forms. o If solvent-solute interactions are less than solvent-solvent and solute-solute interactions then a solution may or may not form depending on relative disparity. 12.4 – Solution Equilibrium and Factors Affecting Solubility The dissolution of a solute in a solvent is an equilibrium process similar to the equilibrium process associated with a phase change. Dynamic equilibrium has been reached when the rates of dissolution and deposition become equal. A solution in which the dissolved solute is in dynamic equilibrium with the solid solute is called a saturated solution. o If you add additional solute to a saturated solution, it will not dissolve.
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A solution containing less than the equilibrium amount of solute is called an unsaturated solution. o
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scotty 10 - Chemistry Notes 12.1 Solutions Solution a...

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