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scotty 13 - Chemistry 14 Notes 14.1 Equilibrium The double...

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Chemistry 14 Notes 14.1: Equilibrium The double arrows in an equation indicate that the reaction can occur in both forward and reverse directions and can reach chemical equilibrium. The concentrations of the reactants and products in a reaction are equilibrium are described by the equilibrium constant, K. o Large K means the reaction lies far to the right at equilibrium – high concentration of products and low concentration of reactants. o Small K means the reaction lies far left at equilibrium – low concentration of products and high concentration of reactants. The value of K is a measure of how far a reaction proceeds. o The larger the value of K, the more the reaction proceeds toward the products. 14.2: The Concept of Dynamic Equilibrium Recall that reaction rates generally increase with increasing concentration of the reactants (unless zero order) and decrease with decreasing concentration of the reactants. Dynamic equilibrium for a chemical reaction, is the condition in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction. o A reaction in dynamic equilibrium (with the two arrows) means that the reaction can proceed in both the forward and reverse directions meaning it is reversible. o The forward and reverse reactions are still occurring at dynamic equilibrium. o When dynamic equilibrium is reached, the concentration of reactants and products no longer change because they are formed at the same rate they are depleted. Does not imply that the concentrations of reactants and products are equal to one another. Some reactions reach equilibrium only after most of the reactants formed products while others reach equilibrium when only a small fraction of the reactants have formed products. It depends on the reaction. 14.3: The Equilibrium Constant (K) The equilibrium constant (K) for a chemical reaction is defined as the ratio (at equilibrium) of the concentrations of the products raised to their stoichiometric coefficients divided by the concentrations of the reactants raised to their stoichiometric coefficients. o The equilibrium constant says nothing about how fast a reaction will reach equilibrium, only how far the reaction has proceeded once equilibrium is reached. o Not all of the species (reactants or products) are completely used.
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