scotty 16 - obtain stable electron configurations and lower...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chemistry Definitions Allotropes – variety of a substance consisting of only one type of atom (graphite, diamond) Atom – A submicroscopic particle that constitutes fundamental building block of ordinary matter; smallest identifiable unit of an element. Molecule – Two or more atoms joined chemically in a specific geometrical arrangement. Isomers - two or more substances that are composed of the same elements in the same proportions but differ in properties because of the arrangement of atoms. Isotope – Atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons and consequently different masses. Polymers – made of many molecules strung together to make long chains Isoelectronic – two elements with same electron configuration (similar properties result) Electropositive – measure of an element’s ability to donate electrons (metals). Octet rule – Tendency for most bonded atoms to possess or share eight electrons in their outer shell to
Background image of page 1
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: obtain stable electron configurations and lower their potential energy. Dipole moment – a measure of the separation of positive and negative charge in a molecule. Covalent bond – atoms share electrons that interact with the nuclei, lower potential energy through electrostatic interactions. Ionic bond – formed between two oppositely charged ions (usually metal cation and nonmetallic anion) attracted to each other by electrostatic forces. Polar covalent bond – bond between two atoms with significantly different electronegativities, resulting in uneven distribution of electron density. Pi bond – bond formed between two p orbitals that overlap side to side. Sigma bond – bond that forms between a combination of any two s, p, or hybridized orbitals that overlap end to end. Hybridization – mathematical procedure in which standard atomic orbitals are combined to form new, hybrid orbitals....
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/01/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 2400 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Georgia State University, Atlanta.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online