scotty 23 - A n Overview of Reactions Organic chemical...

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An Overview of Reactions Organic chemical reactions can be organized broadly by what kinds of reactions occur and how they occur. There are four general types of organic reactions that occur: o Addition reaction – occurs when two reactants add together to form a single product. o Elimination reaction – occurs when one molecule splits into two molecules (opposite of addition). o Substitution reaction – occurs when two reactants exchange parts to give two new products (halogenation, etc). o Rearrangement reaction – occurs when a single reactant undergoes a reorganization of bonds and atoms to give an isomeric product. Symmetrical bond-making/breaking occurs when one bonding electron is either donated by each reactant or stays with each product. o The symmetrical cleavage is said to be homolytic. Unsymmetrical bond-making/breaking occurs when both bonding electrons are donated by one reactant or stay with one product. o The unsymmetrical cleavage is said to be heterolytic. Polarizability is a measure of a compounds response to an external electrical influence. o Larger atoms with more, loosely held electrons are more polarizable o Smaller atoms with fewer, tightly held electrons are less polarizable. A full description of how a reaction occurs is called its mechanism . There are two general kinds of mechanisms by which reactions take place: o Polar mechanisms , the more common type, occur because of an attractive interaction between a
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 2400 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Georgia State.

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scotty 23 - A n Overview of Reactions Organic chemical...

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