Exam 3 studyguide

Exam 3 studyguide - Sociology Exam 3 Studyguide Chapter 6:...

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Sociology Exam 3 Studyguide Chapter 6: Deviance and Social Control I. What Is Deviance? A. Sociologists use the term deviance to refer to a violation of norms. 1. According to sociologist Howard S. Becker , it is not the act itself, but rather how society reacts to it, that makes an action deviant. 2. Deviance is a relative concept; since different groups have different norms, what is deviant to some is not deviant to others. 3. Crime is the violation of rules that have been written into law. 4. Sociologists use the term deviance nonjudgmentally to refer to any act to which people respond negatively. To sociologists, all people are deviants because everyone violates rules from time to time. 5. Erving Goffman used the term stigma to refer to attributes that discredit one’s claim to a “normal” identity; a stigma (e.g., physical deformities, skin color) defines a person’s master status, superseding all other statuses the person occupies. B. Norms allow social order—a group’s customary social arrangements—because they lay out the basic guidelines for how we play our roles and how we interact with others. 1. Deviance is often seen as the threatening because it violates a group’s customary social arrangements and undermines the predictability that is the foundation of social life. 2. Human groups develop a system of social control, formal and informal means of enforcing the norms. C. Society’s disapproval of deviance takes the form of negative sanctions and ranges from frowns and gossip to imprisonment and capital punishment, although most negative sanctions are informal. Positive sanctions are used to reward people for conforming to norms. D. The sociological explanations of deviance differ from biological and psychological ones. 1. Psychologists and sociobiologists explain deviance by looking within individuals; sociologists look outside the individual. 2. Biological explanations focus on genetic predisposition—factors such as intelligence, the “XYY” theory (an extra T chromosome in men leads to crime), or body type (squarish, muscular people are more likely to commit street crimes. 3. Psychological explanations focus on personality disorders (e.g., “bad toilet training,” “suffocating mothers”). Yet these do not necessarily result in presence or absence of specific forms of deviance in a person. 4. Sociological explanations search outside the individual; social influences—such as socialization, subcultural group memberships or social class (people’s relative standing in terms of education, occupation, income and wealth)—account for why some people break norms. II. The Symbolic Interaction Perspective
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A. Edwin Sutherland used the term differential association to suggest that we learn to deviate from or conform to society’s norms, mostly from the people with whom we associate. 1.
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2011 for the course SOC 010 taught by Professor Mcmullin-messier during the Spring '08 term at Kutztown.

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Exam 3 studyguide - Sociology Exam 3 Studyguide Chapter 6:...

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