Sociology2 - Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 3...

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Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 3 Socialization - Process which people learn characteristics of groups. -Socialization is important for social reproduction groups to continue over time. -Social Environment - the entire human environment, including direct contact with others. -Feral (wild) children - children assumed to have been raised by animals, in the wilderness, isolated from humans. Isolated Children - Children abused, abandoned, orphanages In sum: -Socialization- is what sociologists have in mind when they say “Society makes us human.” -Further keys to understanding how society makes us human are our self-concept, ability to “take the role of others,” reasoning, morality, and emotions. Socialization into the Self and Mind - Self - your image of who you are? The unique human capacity of being able to see ourselves “from the outside”; the views we internalize of how others see us. -Charles Horton Cooley concluded that the self is part of how society makes us human. -To describe the process by which this unique aspect of “humanness” develops, Cooley (1902) coined the term looking-glass self . He summarized this idea in the following couplet: - Each to each a looking-glass, Reflects the other that doth pass. -The looking-glass self contains three elements: 1. We imagine how we appear to those around us . 2. We interpret others’ reactions. 3. We develop a self-concept. -Development of self is—an ongoing process that develops over time through interactions. Mead and Role Taking Symbolic interactionist, George Herbert Mead (1863-1931), who taught at the University of Chicago, pointed out how important play is as we develop a self. As we play with others, we learn to take the role of the other — putting oneself in someone else’s shoes, understanding how someone else feels and thinks and thus anticipating how that person will act. -As we develop this ability, at first we can take only the role of significant others , an individual who significantly influence our lives, such as parents or siblings. -As our self gradually develops, we internalize the expectations of more and more people. Our ability to take the role of others eventually extends to being able to take the role of “the group as a whole.” Mead used the term generalized other to refer to our perception of how people in general think of us, Def: the norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people “in general”; the child’s ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of a self. -We go through three stages as we learn to take the role of the other:
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1. Imitation. We do not yet have a sense of self separate from others, and we can only imitate people’s gestures and words. 2.
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Sociology2 - Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 3...

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