Exam 2 Study Guide
Chapter 3 Socialization
- Process which people learn characteristics of groups.
-Socialization is important for social reproduction groups to continue over time.
- the entire human environment, including direct contact with others.
-Feral (wild) children
- children assumed to have been raised by animals, in the wilderness,
isolated from humans.
Children abused, abandoned, orphanages
-Socialization- is what sociologists have in mind when they say “Society makes us human.”
-Further keys to understanding how society makes us human are our self-concept, ability to “take
the role of others,” reasoning, morality, and emotions.
Socialization into the Self and Mind
- your image of who you are? The unique human capacity of being able to see ourselves
“from the outside”; the views we internalize of how others see us.
-Charles Horton Cooley concluded that the self is part of how
makes us human.
-To describe the process by which this unique aspect of “humanness” develops, Cooley (1902)
coined the term
. He summarized this idea in the following couplet:
Each to each a looking-glass, Reflects the other that doth pass.
-The looking-glass self contains three elements:
We imagine how we appear to those around us
We interpret others’ reactions.
We develop a self-concept.
-Development of self is—an ongoing process that develops over time through interactions.
Mead and Role Taking
George Herbert Mead
(1863-1931), who taught at the University of
Chicago, pointed out how important play is as we develop a self. As we play with others, we
take the role of the other
— putting oneself in someone else’s shoes, understanding how
someone else feels and thinks and thus anticipating how that person will act.
-As we develop this ability, at first we can take only the role of
, an individual
who significantly influence our lives, such as parents or siblings.
-As our self gradually develops, we internalize the expectations of more and more people. Our
ability to take the role of others eventually extends to being able to take the role of “the group as
a whole.” Mead used the term
to refer to our perception of how people in
general think of us, Def: the norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people “in general”; the
child’s ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of a
-We go through three stages as we learn to take the role of the other: