ch 7 answers - Chapter 7 Review Questions 1(c Venus and...

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Chapter 7 Review Questions 1. (c) Venus and Mars have the most similar atmospheres in terms of the percentage of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. 2. (d) Venus is least likely to have water ice on or just under its surface due to the high surface temperature. 3. (a) The Earth is most like Venus in terms of mass and diameter. 4. Mercury is difficult to observe from Earth because it is never more than 28º away from the Sun in the sky. This limits observation of Mercury to less than two hours after sunset or two hours before sunrise. During these times when Mercury is above the horizon and the Sun is not, the sky is not very dark and you view Mercury near the horizon through the hazy lower atmosphere. 5. Both Mercury and the Moon have many impact craters. The Moon has many maria, whereas Mercury has smaller lava flood plains and scarps. 6. Both Mercury and Earth have iron and nickel cores surrounded by rocky mantles and crusts. Mercury’s core is a larger proportion of its interior. The center of Earth’s core is solid, while the outer part of its core is molten. We don’t yet know how much, if any, of Mercury’s interior is molten. Mercury’s mantle is much thinner than Earth’s mantle. 7. Interactive exercise 8. Elongated cliffs, known as scarps, are the longest features found on Mercury. Scarps formed when Mercury first cooled and shrank. Tectonic features on the Earth are newer because Earth’s crust is continually changing and destroying older features. 9. Here are several possible explanations: that only iron-rich minerals were able to withstand the solar heat at Mercury’s distance; that the early Sun’s solar wind became especially intense and stripped away the surface of lighter elements; or that Mercury was struck by a large planetesimal that ejected the lower- density matter from near the surface, leaving primarily the dense iron core. If this last explanation is correct, what we are seeing is the interior of what was once a larger planet. 10. Venus and Earth are similar in mass, size, and composition. Venus is 28 percent closer to the Sun than the Earth. That relatively small difference prevented water from condensing on the surface of Venus. They are vastly different in atmospheric composition, atmospheric pressure, surface temperature, and rates of rotation.
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