181lec3.key - Psych 181 Lecture 3 WEBSITE...

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Overview of Pharmaceutical Industry (Legal Drug Mfg from Lec 2) Drug nomenclature and classification Pharmacokinetics Psych 181: Lecture 3 Professor Anagnostaras WEBSITE http://mocolab.org/Courses/Psyc181.html Login and password: “marijuana” Legal Drug Manufacturing in the World • There are 24,000 drugs on the market in the US, with about 1100 different ingredients (up 7x since 1990) • About 300 are commonly prescribed 1 2 3 Sunday, January 9, 2011
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Legal Drug Manufacturing in the World • Typical profit margin of a Pharmaceutical company is three times that of any other industry represented by Fortune • For every year since 1982, Pharmaceutical industry has had the highest profit margin of any industry. • In 2008, US Drug sales were $305 billion, about 40% of world total of $745 billion (US is about 5% of world population). • In 1999, NIH spent $17.8 billion for research and pharms spent $22.7 billion, according to PhRMA 7 8 9 Sunday, January 9, 2011
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Market Share & Competition Other 55% Pharmacia 3% AHP 3% Aventis 4% J&J 4% Novartis 4% BMS 4% AstraZeneca 4% Merck 5% GSK 7% Pfizer 7% Other 35% Chrysler 14% Ford 24% GM 28% Source: IMS Health. Figures for 2000 Automobile Pharmaceutical Express Scripts Drug Trend Report, 1997 13 14 15 Sunday, January 9, 2011
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Health Patents by Country of Inventor Based on nearly 40,000 triadic patent families filed from 1988 to 1995 U.K 6.3% Japan 12.3% France 6.6% Germany 8.6% Canada 2.0% United States 64.2% Frank Lichtenberg and Suchin Verabhak, Using Patent Data to Map Technical Change in Health-Related Areas, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, STI Working Papers, Jan. 16, 2003 Demographics • Highly prevalent neuro-psychochological disorders: - Insomnia (60 million) - Migraine (40 million) - Depression (20 million) - Anxiety Disorders (19 million) - Alzheimer's (4 million) - Schizophrenia (3 million) - Stroke (3 million) - Head Injury (2.5 million) - Parkinson's disease (1.5 million) - Pain (#1 Patients' complaint) Pricing Determine margins, research capacity, and internationalization. U.S. is the only country globally with a“free pricing policy” -- new drugs cost about $2-3 per pill or "whatever the market will bear” This results in higher R&D success and higher profits. 16 17 18 Sunday, January 9, 2011
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US VS. CANADA DRUG PRICES (VERMONT VS MONTREAL) XXX Azmacort Methotrexate, 2.5 mg., 28 Prozac, 20 mg., 45 $50.70 US $47.84 US $105.64 US $18.85 CA $21.00 CA $43.00 CA $31.85 $26.84 $62.64 63% 56% 59% Celebrex, 100 mg/cap, 60 Pravachol, 20 mg., 30 Welbutrin, 1 2x daily SR150 mg, 60 $77.15 US $64.38 US $81.98 US $33.75 CA $47.50 CA $45.00 CA $43.40 $16.88 $36.98 56% 26% 45% Flonase Nasal Prilosec, 20 mg, 90 Zocor, 80 mg, 30 $46.00 US $360.50 US $101.82 US $23.00 CA $170.36 CA $60.00 CA $23.00 $190.14 $41.82 50% 53% 41% Lipitor, 20 mg., 90 Propulsid, 20 mg, 200 Zoloft, 50 mg., 30 $229.93 US $289.20 US $62.00 US $164.00 CA $200.00 CA $31.00 CA $65.93 $89.20 $31.00 29% 31% 50% http://bernie.house.gov/prescriptions/drugsheet.asp Average US to Canadian Price Ratios, Patented Drug Products, 2002 (with alternative exchange rates) 0 45.0 90.0 135.0 180.0 2002 2003 Low Rate 2003 High Rate 2003 Avg Rate 153.8 172.8 141.8 167.0 Ratios Source: PMPRB Discern unmet medical need Discover mechanism of action of disease Identify target protein Screen known compounds against target Chemically develop promising leads Find 1-2 potential drugs Toxicity, pharmacology
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