181lec6.key - Psych 181 Dr Anagnostaras Lec 6 Psychomotor...

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Psych 181: Dr. Anagnostaras Lec 6: Psychomotor stimulants Cocaine N CH3 C O O C O O CH3 Amphetamine CH3 CH CH2 NH2 Psychomotor stimulants Large class of diverse compounds Stimulate alertness, arousal (“psycho-”) Stimulate motor activity (“-motor”) Major ones: Amphetamines and related compounds Cocaine 1 2 3 Sunday, January 9, 2011
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Amphetamines History and basic pharmacology β -phenylethylamine derivatives sympathomimetic amines Naturally-occurring compounds cathinone ephedrine CH 2 NH 2 CH 2 Phenylethylamine (PEA) Naturally-occuring compounds Cathinone active agent in Khat (shrub) Legal in Israel, Kenya, & Oman chewed synthetic version (meth-cathinone) CH NH 2 C CH 3 O Cathinone 4 5 6 Sunday, January 9, 2011
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Ephedrine from Ma Huang (herbal tea) isolated in 1920 ʼ s bronchodilator for asthma pseudoephedrine is an isomer of ephedrine structure similar to epinephrine CH NH CH CH 3 CH 3 OH Ephedrine amphetamine ephedrine pseudoephedrine phenylalanine Neosynephrine “faces of Meth” project 7 8 9 Sunday, January 9, 2011
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Amphetamine History synthetic identified in search for substitute for ephedrine (Alles, 1927) structurally-related to catecholamines 1932, Benzedrine inhaler widespread adoption peak use in early 1970 ʼ s (“speed”) new West Coast popularity ("tweakin") Forms of amphetamine Amphetamine (racemic) mixture of d- and l- isomers Benzedrine®, Adderall® bennies, speed d-Amphetamine dextroamphetamine Dexedrine®, Vyvanse*® dexies, hearts, speed CH NH CH2 CH3 Amphetamine Forms of amphetamine l-Amphetamine levoamphetamine less potent Methamphetamine dl-methylamphetamine Methedrine®, Desoxyn® meth, crystal, crank, speed most potent l-methamph = "desoxyephedrine" CH NH CH2 CH3 CH3 Methamphetamine 10 11 12 Sunday, January 9, 2011
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Ice, Crank, Crystal Meth US News & World Report (1995) Text Ice, Crank, Crystal Meth Pure d -methylamphetamine HCl (can be smoked because of purity) Traditional synthesis amalgam method > not very pure dl -methamphetamine 1981 main ingredient made illegal Synthesis from ephedrine or pseudoephedrine pure d -methylamphetamine HCl Since renewal of the patriot act sales of precursors restricted Used to be made mostly in small labs Now primarily made by Mexican syndicates 13 14 15 Sunday, January 9, 2011
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“Ice” or “Crystal” Blood level (ng/ml) Hours Smoked vs. Oral Amphetamine Amphetamine-related drugs methylphenidate Ritalin® attention deficit disorder fenfluramine Redux® anorectic phenmetrazine Preludin® anorectic subitramine Meridia® Methylphenidate C O O CH N CH 3 Psyc 181: Lec 6 Cont ʼ d (#18) Medical uses of amphetamine Obesity (anorexic effects) once major use - no longer Narcolepsy Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (about 1/3 of prescriptions) Therapeutic dosing much lower than doses taken by addicts 2/10 7 pm Ledden Auditorium 16 17 18 Sunday, January 9, 2011
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19 20 21 Sunday, January 9, 2011
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22 23 24 Sunday, January 9, 2011
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