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PSYC181_reviewsheet1 - PSYC 181 Drugs and Behavior Exam 1...

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PSYC 181: Drugs and Behavior Exam 1 Review Sheet Smoking o The number one preventable cause of death o Approximately 430,000 people die from smoking-related illness in the U.S. each year (1/5 of all deaths) o 70% of smokers have tried to quit at least once; most quitters try 5 to 7 times before they succeed o Only 1 in 5 physicians receive training in smoking cessation; however there are few effective treatments for addiction Drug Abuse o Definition: The use of any drug in a manner that deviates from the approved medical or social patterns in a given culture. o Three criteria of drug abuse: 1. Pattern of pathological use 2. Impairment in social or occupational functioning caused by the pattern of pathological use 3. Duration of at least one month o Some drugs may be considered abused if used at all (e.g. heroin, ecstasy), or if used in one situation but not others o Some cultures may use drugs and not consider it abuse (peyote, bhang) o A lot of drug use falls outside the realm of medical use, such as non-medical drug use, experimental drug use, recreational use, and circumstantial use * Remember, drug abuse is not the same as drug addiction! Drug Addiction o Definition: A behavioral pattern of drug use, characterized by: Compulsive use Compulsive drug-seeking High tendency to relapse after withdrawal. o Addiction does not necessarily imply dependence (e.g. LSD) Names of Drugs o Brand, trade, proprietary e.g. Desoxyn o Generic, trivial, nonproprietary e.g. methamphetamine o Chemical name e.g. N,alpha-dimethylphenethylamine o Street name e.g. “ice” or “crank” Classes of Psychoactive Drugs o Opiates (narcotics): Similar to opium in composition or effect; has analgesic properties, causes sleepiness; e.g. morphine, heroin, codeine, hydrocodone (Vicodin), Dilaudid, Demerol o Depressants : Depress the Central Nervous System (CNS) Barbiturates: Seconol, Nembutal Benzodiazepines: diazepam (Valium), Ativan, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), GHB o Stimulants: cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate (Ritalin), nicotine, caffeine o Hallucinogens: LSD, psylocin, psylocibin o Dissociative Anesthetics: PCP (phencyclidine), Ketamine o Cannabinoids: tetrahydrocannibanol (THC- marijuana)
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o Designer Drugs: MDMA (ecstasy). The drags have characteristics of both hallucinogens and stimulants History of Drug Abuse o Largely a man-made, corporate developed, government endorsed problem o The legal and social status of a drug is separate of the drug’s addictiveness; many illegal drugs do not produce addictiveness. o Drug addiction emerged in the U.S. with the use of morphine (derived from opium) during the Civil War (Soldier’s disease) Opium Extracted from the unripe seed capsule of the poppy plant Grows wild in Asia; most legal production is in India and Turkey Contains morphine, codeine, nosapine (narcotin), papaverine, narceine, thebain, etc.
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