Chapters 1&2 Summaries

Chapters 1&2 Summaries - Chapter 1 Summary 1....

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Chapter 1 Summary 1. Psychology is defined as the science of behavior and mental processes. (p. 3) 2. Rene Descartes proposed an idea called interactive dualism, which states that the mind and body are separate entities that interact with each other. (p. 3) 3. Philosophers have been debating the issue of nature vs. nurture for many centuries, this debate argues whether the relationship between the mental activity and the brain of a person can be contributed to his/her inborn nature or the environment in which they were nurtured. (p. 3) 4. Physiology is a branch of biology that studies the functions and parts of living organisms. (p. 3) 5. Early scientific discoveries in physiology such as that scientific methods could be applied to issues of human behavior and thinking laid the foundation for the emergence of psychology. (p. 3) 6. Wilhelm Wundt was perhaps the leading proponent of psychology as a separate discipline and was the first to use scientific methods to study fundamental psychological processes. (p. 4) 7. Edward B. Titchener developed the theory of structuralism, which states that the most complex conscious experiences could be broken down into elemental structure or components. (p. 4) 8. William James, who was widely regarded as the main proponent of American psychology, developed the theory of functionalism, which stresses the importance of how people and animals can adapt to their environments through behavioral functions. (p. 5) 9. Both structuralism and functionalism no longer exist as distinct schools of thought in contemporary psychology, however certain themes in each of the theories continue to be expressed in modern psychology. (p. 5) 10. Sigmund Freud developed the school of psychological thought called psychoanalysis, which emphasized the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality. (p. 7) 11. Behaviorism, which was first introduced within the works of Ivan Pavlov, suggests that psychology should focus only on the observable behaviors that can be objectively measured and verified. (p. 7) 12. The early behaviorist’s goal was to discover the fundamental principles of learning; they sought to achieve this through studying the behavior of animals within controlled conditions. (p. 8) 13. American psychologists B. F. Skinner and John B. Watson were major proponents of behaviorism; leading to the domination of behaviorism within the field of psychology for half a century. (p. 8) 14. Carl Rogers was the main founder behind the theory of humanistic psychology. This theory focused on conscious experiences, such as self-determination, free will, and choice, in shaping human behavior. (p. 8) 15. Today, psychologists identify themselves through their perspective and specialty area rather than by their school of thought. (p. 9)
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16. The biological perspective focuses its study on the physical bases of human and animal behavior, which include the nervous system, endocrine system, immune system, and genetics. (p. 9)
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Chapters 1&2 Summaries - Chapter 1 Summary 1....

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