Chapters 5&6 Summaries

Chapters 5&6 Summaries - Chapter 5 Summary 1....

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Chapter 5 Summary 1. Learning is a process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experiences. (p. 174). 2. The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses is known as conditioning. (p. 174) 3. Psychologists have often studied leaning by observing and recording the learning experiences of animals in carefully controlled laboratory situations. (p. 175) 4. Classical conditioning is the basic learning process that involves repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response. (p. 176) 5. The unconditioned stimulus is the natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning. (p. 176) 6. The conditioned stimulus is a formerly neutral stimulus that acquires that capacity to elicit a reflexive response. (p. 176) 7. Pavlov discovered that the more frequently the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus were paired, the stronger was the association between them. (p. 178) 8. Pavlov also found that conditioning was most effective when the conditioned stimulus was presented immediately before the unconditioned stimulus. (p. 178) 9. Extinction is the gradual weakening and apparent disappearance of conditioned behavior. (p. 179) 10. The reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to the conditioned stimulus is referred to as spontaneous recovery. (p. 179) 11. Behaviorism is the school of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasize the scientific study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning. (p. 179) 12. Watson believed that, much as Pavlov’s dogs reflexively salivated to food, human emotions could be thought of as reflexive responses involving the muscles and glands. (p. 180) 13. Contemporary learning researchers acknowledge the importance of both mental factors and evolutionary influences in classical conditioning. (p. 184) 14. For learning to occur, the conditioned stimulus must be a reliable signal that predicts the presentations of the unconditioned stimulus. (p. 185) 15. Classical conditioning seems to involve learning the relationship between events. (p. 186) 16. The study of taste aversions contributed to a new awareness of the importance of the organism’s natural behavior patterns in classical conditioning. (p. 186) 17. Taste aversion is a classically conditioned dislike for and avoidance of a particular food that develops when an organism becomes ill after eating the food. (p. 187) 18. Biological preparedness is the idea that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and responses. (p. 187) 19. Taste aversion research emphasizes that the study of learning must consider the unique behavior patterns and capabilities of different species. (p. 188)
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20. Operant conditioning deals with the learning of active, voluntary behaviors that are
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2011 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Winter '10 term at Saginaw Valley.

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Chapters 5&6 Summaries - Chapter 5 Summary 1....

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