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Chapters 7&8 Summaries

Chapters 7&8 Summaries - Chapter 7 1 Thinking is a...

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Chapter 7 1. Thinking is a broad term that refers to how we use knowledge to analyze situations, solve problems, and make decisions. (p. 260) 2. Cognition is a general term that refers to the mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge. (p. 260) 3. Mental image is a mental representation of objects or events that are not physically present. (p. 261) 4. Mental imagery is not strictly limited to visual pictures. Most people are able to form images that involve senses other than vision. (p. 261) 5. We tend to scan a mental image in much the same way that we visually scan an actual image. (p. 261) 6. Perception and imagination share common brain mechanisms. (p. 262) 7. A mental category of objects or ideas based on properties that they share is called a concept. (p. 263) 8. A formal concept is a mental category that is formed by learning the rules or features that define it. (p. 263) 9. A natural concept is a mental category that is formed as a result of every day experience. (p. 263) 10. Some researchers believe that we don’t classify a new instance by comparing it to a single “best example” or prototype, but instead they believe that we store memories of individual instances called exemplars. (p. 264) 11. Problem solving refers to thinking and behavior directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available. (p.264) 12. The strategy you select in solving a problem is influenced by the nature of the problem and the amount of time you are willing to invest in solving it. (p. 264) 13. Trial and error is a problem-solving strategy that involves attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do not work. (p. 265) 14. A problem-solving strategy that involves following a specific role, procedure, or method that inevitably produces the correct solution is known as an algorithm. (p. 265) 15. Heuristic is a problem-solving strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions. (p. 265) 16. Insights rarely occur through the conscious manipulation of concepts or information. (p. 266) 17. Intuition means coming to a conclusion or making a judgment without conscious awareness of the thought processes involved. (p. 266) 18. The sudden realization of how a problem can be solved is called insight. (p. 267) 19. Different cognitive strategies are used when making decisions, depending on the type and number of options available to us. (p. 267) 20. The decision-making process becomes complicated when each option involves the consideration of several features. (p. 267) 21. The tendency to persist in solving problems with solutions that have worked in the past is known as a mental set. (p. 267) 22. The three most common decision-making strategies are: the single-feature model, the additive model, and the elimination by aspects model. (p. 268)
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23. Using the single-feature model, you base your decision on a single feature in order to simplify the choice among many alternatives. (p. 268) 24. The additive model requires systematically evaluating the important features of each alternative. (p. 268) 25. Using the elimination by aspects model, you evaluate all of the alternatives one
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Chapters 7&8 Summaries - Chapter 7 1 Thinking is a...

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