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Summaries Chapters 11&12

Summaries Chapters 11&12 - Chapter 11 1 Person...

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Chapter 11 1. Person perception refers to the mental processes we use to form judgments about other people. (p. 438) 2. Social psychology is the branch of psychology that studies how people think, feel, and behave in social situations. (p. 439) 3. The mental processes people use to make sense out of their social environment is called social cognition. (p. 439) 4. Social influence is the effects of situational factors and other people on an individual’s behavior. (p. 439) 5. Social norms are the “rules” or expectations for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation. (p. 439) 6. Every interpersonal context has three key components. (p. 439) 7. The characteristics of the individual you are attempting to size up, your own characteristics as the perceiver, and the specific situation in which the process occurs are the components of interpersonal context. (p.439) 8. Social categorization is the mental process of classifying people into groups on the basis of common characteristics. (p. 440) 9. When it’s important to your goals to perceive another person as accurately as possible, you’re less likely to rely on automatic categorization. (p. 440) 10. An implicit personality theory is a network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors. (p. 440) 11. A study by Knut Kampe and his colleagues was the first to show that the brain’s ventral striatum processes rewards in the context of human social interaction. (p. 442) 12. Attribution refers to the process of explaining your own behavior and the behavior of other people. (p. 443) 13. People tend to spontaneously attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors. (p. 443) 14. Blaming the victim is the tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it. (p. 443) 15. The assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get is the just-world hypothesis. (p. 443) 16. The actor-observer discrepancy is the tendency to attribute one’s own behavior to external, situational causes, while attributing the behavior of others to internal, personal causes. (p. 444) 17. The self-serving bias is the tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one’s own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes. (p. 444) 18. In a wide range of situations, people tend to credit themselves for their successes and to blame their failures on external circumstances. (p. 445) 19. An attitude is a learned tendency to evaluate objects, people, or issues in a particular way. (p. 446) 20. Attitudes are typically positive or negative, but they can also be ambivalent, as when you have mixed feelings about an issue or person. (p. 446)
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21. Social psychologists have found that you’re most likely to behave in accordance with
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Summaries Chapters 11&12 - Chapter 11 1 Person...

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