Summary Chapters 9&10

Summary Chapters 9&10 - Chapter 9 1. Developmental...

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1. Developmental psychology is the study of how people change over the lifespan. (p. 351) 2. Along with studying common patterns of growth and change, developmental psychologists look at the ways in which people differ in their development and life stories. (p. 351) 3. Developmental psychologists often conceptualize the lifespan in terms of basic stages of development which are traditionally defined by age. (p. 351) 4. An important theme in developmental psychology is the interaction between heredity and environment. (p. 351) 5. Your genotype consists of the chromosomes inherited from your biological parents, but your phenotype, the actual characteristics you display, results from the interaction of genetics and environmental factors. (p. 352) 6. A chromosome is a long, threadlike structure composed of twisted parallel strands of DNA. (p. 352) 7. A gene is a unit of DNA on a chromosome that encodes instructions for making a particular protein molecule. (p. 352) 8. The human genome is the scientific description of the complete set of DNA in the human organism, including gene locations. (p. 354) 9. During the prenatal stage, the single-celled zygote develops into a full-term fetus and is divided into the germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods. (p. 355) 10. The prenatal period is the first two weeks of prenatal development. (p. 355) 11. The embryonic period is the second period of prenatal development, extending from the third week through the eighth week. (p. 356) 12. The greatest vulnerability to teratogens is during the embryonic period. (p. 356) 13. Teratogens are harmful agents or substances that can cause malformation or defects in an embryo or fetus. (p. 356) 14. The fetal period is the third and longest period of prenatal development, extending from the ninth week until birth. (p. 356) 15. Although physically helpless, newborn infants are equipped with reflexes and sensory capabilities that enhance their chances for survival. (p. 357) 16. Vision is the least developed sense of a newborn baby at birth. (p. 356) 17. By the time infants begin crawling, their view of the world, including distant objects, will be as clear as that of their parents. (p. 358) 18. An inborn predisposition to consistently behave and react in a certain way is known as a temperament. (p. 359) 19. Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess found that about two-thirds of babies could be classified into on of three broad temperamental patterns including easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up. (p. 359) 20. Easy babies readily adapt to new experiences, generally display positive moods and emotions, and have regular sleeping and eating patterns. (p. 359) 21. Difficult babies tend to be intensely emotional, are irritable and fussy, and cry a lot. (p. 359)
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Summary Chapters 9&10 - Chapter 9 1. Developmental...

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