roma LEZIONE xv minimal cell

roma LEZIONE xv minimal cell - Roma, Corso Biofisica,...

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Unformatted text preview: Roma, Corso Biofisica, minimal cell CAN MINIMAL LIVING CELLS BE PREAPRED IN THE LABORATORY? LA STRUTTURA DI UN BATTERIO SCHEMA METABOLICO DI UNA CELLULA IL CONCETTO DI VITA MINIMALE La domanda che ci si pone la seguente: Questa enorme complessit una condizione NECESSARIA? E possibile immaginare una cellula VIVENTE avente una complessit MINIMA? The work on the minimal living cell must be accompanied by studies on the early cells - namely the protocells at the time before the advent of ribosomes and before the high selectivity of modern times towards an operational definition of m i n i m a l life at which level of molecular complexity does the quality emerge, which one can call life? what are the minimal and sufficient conditions for a physical system to have "life"? which is the simplest possible synthetic chemical equivalent of a living cell? the notion of the minimal cell: lipidic bilayer cont aining t he minimal and sufficient number of component s t o be "alive" alive self -maint enance reproduct ion mut at ion C C C C N A B C H G D Q M DNA RNA Proteins wall components N H various organells NUTRIENTS / ENERGY C C C C IL CONCETTO DI VITA MINIMALE 1) AUTO-MANTENIMENTO Il sistema si auto-mantiene attraverso lacquisizione di energia e materia provenienti dallambiente, le quali vengono trasformate allinterno del sistema per mantenere il sistema in uno stato dinamico stazionario ( OMEOSTASI ) A ENERGIA MATERIA PRODOTTI ED ENERGIA DI SCARTO + ORGANIZZAZIONE INTERNA IL CONCETTO DI VITA MINIMALE 2) AUTO-RIPRODUZIONE Il sistema pu costruire una copia di se stesso e dare origine a due sistemi simili al primo A A A A A + nutrienti IL CONCETTO DI VITA MINIMALE 3) EVOLVABILITA Il sistema, attraverso meccanismi interni e grazie alla pressione selettiva esercitata dallambiente, pu evolvere per adattarsi al meglio alle condizioni imposte. A A A A A A A A A A A A IL CONCETTO DI VITA MINIMALE Quale il numero MINIMO di geni e di altri componenti che possono dar vita a un sistema vivente cellulare? IL CONCETTO DI VITA MINIMALE Alcuni biologi hanno comparato il genoma dei batteri pi semplici, giungendo alla conclusione che occorrono circa 200 geni IL CONCETTO DI VITA MINIMALE Tuttavia, considerando che le cellule primitive erano certamente pi semplici di quelle attuali (e meno efficienti), si pu ipotizzare che la vita minimale pu essere realizzata con circa 50-100 geni the notion of the minimal cell: lipidic bilayer cont aining t he minimal and sufficient number of component s t o be "alive" alive self -maint enance reproduct ion mut at ion HOW DO YOU PROCEED EXPERIMENTALLY FOR CONSTRUCTING IN THE LABORATORY A LIVING CELL MODEL? Liposomes, as closed spherical bilayers, are considered the most likely precursors of early living cells (protocells) LIPOSOMES ARE JUST TINY SOAP BUBBLES Micelle Liposome Bilayer sheet Cross-sectional views of the three structures that can be formed by...
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roma LEZIONE xv minimal cell - Roma, Corso Biofisica,...

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