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14844_CSE904 Hw1 answers - Assignment_1 Advanced Computer...

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Assignment_1 Advanced Computer Architecture (CSE_904) PART _A Question1.  Why do we need High speed computing? And write  at least 2 features of parallel computers. Solution1. High-performance /High Speed Computing (HPC) is the use of parallel processing for running advanced application programs efficiently, reliably and quickly. The term applies especially to systems that function above a teraflop or 10 12 floating-point operations per second. The term HPC is occasionally used as a synonym for supercomputing, although technically a supercomputer is a system that performs at or near the currently highest operational rate for computers. Some supercomputers work at more than a petaflop or 10 15 floating- point operations per second. The most common users of HPC systems are scientific researchers, engineers and academic institutions. Some government agencies, particularly the military, also rely on HPC for complex applications. High- performance systems often use custom-made components in addition to so-called commodity components. As demand for processing power and speed grows, HPC will likely interest businesses of all sizes, particularly for transaction processing and data warehouses. Need of High Speed Computing Computer architects have always strived to increase the performance of their computer architectures. High performance may come from fast dense circuitry, packaging technology, and parallelism. Single-processor supercomputers have achieved unheard of speeds and have been pushing hardware technology to the physical limit of chip manufacturing. However, this trend will soon come to an end, because there are physical and architectural bounds that limit the computational power that can be achieved with a single-processor system. Advanced computer architectures that utilize parallelism via multiple processing units opened the way t high speed computing.Parallel processors are computer systems consisting of multiple processing units connected via some interconnection network plus the software needed to make the processing units work together. There are two major factors used to categorize such
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systems: the processing units themselves and the interconnection network that ties them together. The processing units can communicate and interact with each other using either shared memory or message passing methods. The interconnection network for shared memory systems can be classified as bus-based versus switch- based. In message passing systems, the interconnection network is divided into static and dynamic. Static connections have a fixed topology that does not change while programs are running. Dynamic connections create links on the fly as the program executes. The main argument for using high speed computing is to create powerful computers by simply connecting multiple processors. A multiprocessor is expected to reach faster speed than the fastest single-processor system. In addition, a multiprocessor consisting of a number of single processors is expected to be more cost-effective than building a high speed single processor. Another advantage
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