Lesson 2 – The Cycles of the Sun and the Moon and planet wanderings.docx

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AS 101: Astronomy 1: Our Place in the CosmosLesson 2 – The Cycles of the Sun and the Moon and planet wanderingsSeptember 16th– 20th, 2019Learning Outcomes:Describe the cycle of the Sun daily and annuallyExplain how seasons are caused and describe their cycleDescribe the cycle of the Moon including its phasesIdentify and describe the three types of lunar eclipsesIdentify and describe the three types of solar eclipsesDescribe solar coordinates and detail how they are expressedIdentify the general direction of movement of the Sun, Moon, and PlanetsExplain retrograde planetary motionDescribe stellar parallax and explain why it is importantThe Cycle of the SunStars are still present in the sky in the daytime, but we cannot see them because the overpowering light from the Sunthe Sun appears to move slowly eastwardrelative to the background of the distant starsomoves from east to west each day (ecliptic)obackward motion is due to the fact that the Earth moves around the Sun on its annual orbitthe Earth circles the Sun in 365.26 days & the Sun goes once aroundthe sky in the same periodTHE SEASONS:oSeasons are caused the revolution of Earth around the Sun &Earth’s equator is tipped 23.4 degrees relative to its orbito2 important principles:Seasons are notcaused by variation in the distancebetween Earth and SunEarth’s orbit is circular, so it is always about thesame distance from the sunSeasons arecaused by changes in amount of solarenergy that Earth’s northern and southern hemispherereceive at different times of the yearThe Daily Path of the SunSunrise and sunset times vary constantly throughout theyear as Earth rotates around the Sun while its rotationalaxis continuously points in the same directionThe Sun’s path across the sky doesn’t change noticeablyday to day – it gradually is moving either closer orfurther away from your ZenithoSummer winter – Sun is moving further awayfrom zenith (slowly southward)oWinter summer – Sun is moving closer tozenith (slowly northward)Any planet in the sunset sky is called an evening starAny planet in the dawn sky is called a morning star EventDateSeasonVernalEquinoxMarch 20SpringSummersolsticeJune 22SummerAutumnalequinoxSeptember 22AutumnWintersolsticeDecember22WinterEquinox (equal) – equal amounts of daylight & darknessSolstice – “sun” and “stationary”
AS 101: Astronomy 1: Our Place in the CosmosLesson 2 – The Cycles of the Sun and the Moon and planet wanderingsSeptember 16th– 20th, 2019Looney Tunes: The MoonThe Moon takes about a month to circle the EarthoAs it is circling the Earth, it goes through phases of reflected sunlight (cycle of lunar phases)The Moon moves relative to the background of the stars & the markings on the Moon DO NOTchangeMoons distance from Earth approx. 356000km to 406000kmOrbital period

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