ch 6 - Distortions of Memory How accurate are our memories?...

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Distortions of Memory
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How accurate are our memories? Errors can occur during encoding, storage, and retrieval that lead to memory loss and distortion.
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7 sins of memory Schacter (2001) Sins of Omission: loss of memory for info we try to remember. 1.Transience: Loss of memory over time.can occur in ST or LT memory
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7 sins of memory Schacter (2001) 2. Absent-mindedness: lack of attention, during either encoding or retrieval. Most likely when in familiar settings doing tasks automatically. Increases with stress and distraction. Locking your keys in the car.
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7 sins of memory Schacter (2001) 3. Blocking: can’t retrieve info from LTM. Remember, Tip of the Tongue? Don’t have the appropriate cue.
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Schacter 7 Sins cntd. Sins of commission: we remember incorrect info or can’t forget info we want to forget. 4. Misattribution: mix up the source of a memory, attribute it to a different source. You dream your friend was rude to you and wake up the next day angry at them. Later you think that your friend really was rude to you.
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Schacter 7 Sins cntd. 5. Suggestibility: comments by others confuse our recollections. Remember when we went to the coffee shop to meet Frankie and we right after you got your mocha we saw Jennifer being rude to him?
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Schacter 7 Sins cntd. 6. Bias: how our current beliefs taint our recall. After cheating on her boyfriend, Ann remembered him acting suspiciously during the majority of the relationship, as if he too had been cheating.
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Schacter 7 Sins cntd. 7. Persistence: repeated retrieval of past memories we want to forget. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
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Schemas A memory representation of a type of event, characteristics generally true of the event, not of a specific event. Script Frame
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Fitting into prior knowledge Prior knowledge reduces what we must remember. Prior knowledge guides the interpretation of details. Prior knowledge makes unusual things stand out.
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Schemas not only help us to retain information, but can contribute to the alteration and loss of memories.
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Encoding Distortions Selection: Selective encoding of information that fits with prior knowledge. Interpretation: Inferences and suppositions are made to conform new material to activated schemas. Integration: Combining features of different events into a unified memory representation.
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Selection: Selective encoding of information that fits with prior knowledge. Remember how we talked about how
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2011 for the course PSYCH 3 taught by Professor Mauldin during the Winter '11 term at UCSD.

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ch 6 - Distortions of Memory How accurate are our memories?...

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