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CHAPTER 4 - Memory-3 storage systems 1 sensory 2 Short...

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Memory: -3 storage systems: 1) sensory 2) Short Term (Working Memory) 3) Long Term -3 processes that form mental representations and operate on them: 1) encoding: perceiving, recognizing, and further processing an object or event so that it can be remembered later. The way information is encoded into a mental representation makes a difference in how well it is remembered. If information is not well-encoded an event can be forgotten 2) storage of event’s mental representation in LT memory. Failure to transfer information from ST to LT can fail memory 3) retrieval: searching LT memory and finding the event that has been encoded and stored. Memory can be encoded and stored properly, yet if it is retrieved unsuccessfully, information is inaccessible to consciousness Memory can fail us through: SINS OF OMMISION: malfunctions that result in a loss of memory for information that we’d like to remember 1) transcience: rapid loss of memory over short periods of time: information fails to be transferred into LT memory 2) absent-mindedness: breakdowns in attention that prevent encoding the event in ST memory in the first place 3) blocking: inability to retrieve information from long-term memory. SINS OF COMMISION: we’d remember incorrect information or information that we would like to forget 1) misattribution: confusing an event that I saw in a movie or even dreamed, with an event actually experienced 2) Suggestibility: our tendency to become confused in our recollections because of comments made by other about what really happened: eyewitness testimony 3) Bias: the way in which our current beliefs affect our reconstruction of the past. Retrieval from LT memory is biased by the way we think and feel now about the event being remembered. 4) Persistence: an unwelcome imposition of the past in full detail. Human memory is not unitary-therefore we have to distinguish sensory, ST and LT in terms of their differences in capacity and durations of storage. a) sensory memory: refers to the brief persistence of stimuli following transduction. It permits stimuli to be perceived, recognized, and entered into ST memory. W/o sensory, events in the environment would be forgotten as soon as they registered in the nervous system i) iconic -brief persistence of sensory memory in vision. -has large capacity-greater than what can be reported at once, and duration of 250 sec.
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-Sperling: 1) whole: immediately asked to recall entire matrix: Sperling saw that all the letters were initially briefly persisted in iconic storage. But once the letters were recognized in name and shape, some letters were lost. 2) partial report: one row cued for recall but we don’t know which row the examiner is going to ask us to recall. Result was same as whole report. -the letters were available briefly in iconic memory, but verbally reporting the letters
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CHAPTER 4 - Memory-3 storage systems 1 sensory 2 Short...

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