CHAPTER 5

CHAPTER 5 - CHAPTER 5 LT Memory can be preserved even when...

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CHAPTER 5 LT Memory can be preserved even when an individual suffers from anterograde amnesia: it seems to be portioned into different systems that can function or fail independently of one another; it is made up of multiple memory systems - episodic memory: can be experimented on to distinguish from LT and ST memory. LT Memory is divided into a) Declarative (what)- knowledge of events, facts, and concepts, in short, knowing what the world presents to us; referred to as explicit memory because one is consciously aware of the kinds of mental representations involved. It is possible to gain informational access to these representations and report them verbally i) Semantic : stores knowledge of concepts & facts. ii) episodic: remembering an event requires the episodic component b) Procedural (nondeclarative) memory (how)- refers to the skills and conditioned responses that reflect knowing how to respond to the world; referred to as implicit memory because it uses mental representations that are not accessible to conscious reflection. Ex) motor skills (typing/running-one’s body knows how to run or type without the mind being consciously aware of the representations that do the work: attempting to become consciously aware of the steps involved in a motor skill (tennis swings) can disrupt procedural memory. Ex) Perceptual skill (reading) Ex) cognitive skills (writing or problem solving) Ex) conditioned responses: a stimulus in the environment triggers a learned response. a) It can be learned through operant conditioning , in which a response is associated with a stimulus by using rewards b) It can be learned through classical conditioning , in which a conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus. The brain regions that mediate classical conditioning are different from those involved in operant conditioning. Ex) fear in response to lightening (conditioned) might develop because the thunder (unconditioned) that follows lightening automatically elicits fear (unconditioned) -Different kinds of LT memory are supported by different brain structures. Classical conditioning is found in the cerebellum rather than the hippocampal system. Modern researches use PET, fMRI, and lesion studies to isolate different brain regions for different kinds of nondeclarative memory. Learning sensorimotor skills ( tracing a fidure viewed in a mirror) , perceptual skills ( reading mirror-imaged text) , and cognitive skills ( solving problems) each involve a different neural substrate. types of tests: a) Explicit ( direct) tests require the conscious recollection of information ( when a person recognizes or recalls a past event) b) Implicit (indirect) tests require the use of information stored in LT memory, but not its conscious recollection, to improve performance Ex) perceptual priming ( implicit task): a prior occurrence of the prime improves the chances of later perceiving a very brief exposure to the same word. Repeating the typeface of a visually presented work similarly results in
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CHAPTER 5 - CHAPTER 5 LT Memory can be preserved even when...

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