CHAPTER 6

CHAPTER 6 - -Semantic memory can get in the way of accurate...

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-Semantic memory can get in the way of accurate memories of past events. LT memory) by providing expectations. -The concepts & facts of semantic memory and the specific autobiographical events of episodic memory are linked in countless ways. The schemas provide expectations that help us to learn and remember but also to miss and distort memories in order to conform to momentary expectations Schemas enable us to fabricate how past events most likely unfolded. reconstructive retrieval: refers to schema-guided construction of episodic memory that interpret, embellish, integrate and alter encoded memory representations. Ex) many experiments got that recall may be driven by schema-based reconstructive process. a) Reconstructing lab events: -Barlett: recall took place through an attempt to fabricate or reconstruct the original story-3 errors through reconstructive retrieval. 1) leveling : loss of details: story leveled to a shorter version; unfamiliar terms and ideas were omitted. 2) assimilation of events into schemas: the recollection was rationalized or normalized to fit with preconceived notions. 3) sharpening : embellishing facts; refers to remembering details that weren’t actually stated but that could be inferred from general knowledge. -reconstructive recall causes loss of some details and the erroneous inclusion of other details. Inferences were drawn; facts were assimilated; over time, there were magnified distortions. The degree of accuracy dropped but major distortions in elements held constant ( included normalizing events to fit a schema or using a schema to infer a missing detail) . b) Reconstructing Autobiographical Events: an event that we personally experiences a) first level cues: lifetime periods that makes us think, “when I lived in…when I worked for…”, that extends over years or even decades, and serve to orient us in autobiographical time and trigger more specific recollections. A lifetime period might evoke moods, goals, or general themes of the period, but not concrete events. b) second level retrieval cues: general events that are chronologically organized personal experiences that cluster about thematically important landmarks in time. First time experiences ( falling in love, taking a first job, graduation from high school) reminds one of related general events c) third level of retrieval cues: consists of concrete images or sensory replays of a specific event. These detailed recollections are always integrated with schema-based representations of general events ( what seems like a discrete recollection is tied into higher levels of memory structure) -Life narrative: recalling one’s life uncovers the significant general events that define the self; they are recalled as part of a narrative that gives life meaning, not as isolated events; it provides us with a sense of who we are, but accuracy is questioned. -In addition to life narratives, people recall flashbulb memories and personal experiences.
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CHAPTER 6 - -Semantic memory can get in the way of accurate...

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