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Causes of Female Delinquency

Causes of Female Delinquency - U.S Department of Justice...

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U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention APRIL 2010 Girls Study Group Understanding and Responding to Girls’ Delinquency Jeff Slowikowski, Acting Administrator Access OJJDP publications online at www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ojjdp Causes and Correlates of Girls’ Delinquency By Margaret A. Zahn, Robert Agnew, Diana Fishbein, Shari Miller, Donna-Marie Winn, Gayle Dakoff, Candace Kruttschnitt, Peggy Giordano, Denise C. Gottfredson, Allison A. Payne, Barry C. Feld, and Meda Chesney-Lind According to data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, from 1991 to 2000, arrests of girls increased more (or decreased less) than arrests of boys for most types of offenses. By 2004, girls accounted for 30 percent of all juvenile arrests. However, questions remain about whether these trends reflect an actual increase in girls’ delinquency or changes in societal responses to girls’ behavior. To find answers to these questions, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention convened the Girls Study Group to establish a theoretical and empirical foundation to guide the devel- opment, testing, and dissemination of strategies to reduce or prevent girls’ involvement in delinquency and violence. The Girls Study Group Series, of which this bulletin is a part, presents the Group’s find- ings. The series examines issues such as patterns of offending among adolescents and n n n how they differ for girls and boys; risk and protective factors associated with delinquency, including gender differences; and the causes and correlates of girls’ delinquency. A lthough the literature examining the causes and correlates of male delin- quency is extensive, the extent to which these factors explain and predict delin- quency for girls remains unclear. This bul- letin summarizes results of an extensive review of more than 1,600 articles and book chapters from the social science sci- entific literature on individual-level risk factors for delinquency and factors related to family, peers, schools, and communi- ties. The review, which focused on girls n n n Office of Justice Programs Innovation Partnerships Safer Neighborhoods
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Girls Study Group± ages 11 to 18, also examined whether these factors are gender neutral, gender specific, or gender sensitive. This bulletin defines delinquency as the involvement of a child younger than 18 in behavior that violates the law. Such behavior includes violent crime, prop- erty crime, burglary, drug and alcohol abuse, and status offenses (i.e., behav- iors that would not be criminal if com- mitted by an adult) such as running away, ungovernability, truancy, and possession of alcohol. According to arrest statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the overall rate of juvenile arrests decreased from 1994 to 2004 (Snyder, 2008). More specifically, the arrest rate for violent crimes over this period decreased 49 percent. The violent crime arrest rate then increased in 2005 by 2 percent, with a 4-percent increase in 2006.
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Causes of Female Delinquency - U.S Department of Justice...

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