and Jennifer C. Karberg
At midyear 2000 the Nation’s prisons
and jails incarcerated 1,931,859
Federal and State prison
authorities and local jail authorities held
in their custody 702 persons per
100,000 U.S. residents.
the custody of the 50 States, the
District of Columbia, and the Federal
Government accounted for two-thirds
of the incarcerated population
The other third
were held in local jails (621,149).
On June 30, 2000, 1,385,492 prisoners
were under Federal and State jurisdic-
tion, which includes inmates in custody
and persons under the legal authority
of a prison system but held outside its
The number under State
jurisdiction rose by 1.5%
est annual growth rate in 29 years
while the number under Federal juris-
diction rose by 9.3%.
17.9%), Delaware (up 12.5%), and
North Dakota (up 10.5%) had the
largest percentage increases.
States had decreases, including
Massachusetts (-4.8%), Alaska
(-4.4%), and New York (-3.1%).
At midyear 2000 local jail authorities
held or supervised 687,033 offenders.
Ten percent of these offenders
(65,884) were supervised outside jail
facilities in programs such as commu-
nity service, work release, weekend
reporting, electronic monitoring, and
other alternative programs.
Bureau of Justice Statistics
From yearend 1990 to
The rate of incarceration in prison
and jail increased from 1 in every 218
U.S. residents to 1 in every 142.
State, Federal, and local govern-
ments had to accommodate an
additional 82,438 inmates per year
(or the equivalent of 1,585 new
inmates per week).
In the year ending June 30, 2000
The number of inmates held in jail
rose by 15,206, in State prison by
27,953, and in Federal prison by
In the three largest State
prison systems, the number dropped
in California (down 33 inmates) and
New York (down 2,269 inmates), while
it rose in Texas (up 890 inmates).
On June 30, 2000
Privately operated prison facilities
held 76,010 inmates (up 9.1% since
Local jails were operating 8% below
their rated capacity. In contrast, at
yearend 1999 State prisons were
between 1% and 17% above capacity,
and Federal prisons were 32% above
their rated capacity.
An estimated 12% of black males,
4% of Hispanic males, and 1.7% of
white males in their twenties and early
thirties were in prison or jail.
There were 110 female inmates per
100,000 women in the U.S., compared
to 1,297 male inmates per 100,000
From yearend 1990 to midyear 2000, the Nation’s prisons and jails
grew by 783,157 inmates, an annual increase of 5.6%
Number in custody
in Federal prisons
in local jails
in State prisons
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs