ch369_3-1_carbs_notes - Carbohydrates Chapter 11 (material...

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Unformatted text preview: Carbohydrates Chapter 11 (material is in Chapters 9-10 in frst edition) Glucose is a carbohydrate. -D-glucose Carbohydrates are poly-hydroxy aldehydes and ketones. Some have cyclic (ring) structures. Open form Glucose in solution is mostly alpha and beta, with just a little open form. Notice the carbons are numbered (1 through 6). -D-glucose -D-glucose -D-glucose -D-glucose The -OH is a nucleophile, and will attack the carboxylate to make the cyclic structure. Other ways of representing glucose. Chair conformation of glucose: Hayworth projection of glucose: -D-glucose Fischer projection of glucose: In a Fischer projection, the horizontal lines are assumed to be coming out of the page, and the vertical lines are going into the page. (see example on next slide) Fischer projections Carbohydrates often have chiral centers: Enantiomers are mirror image pairs that can not be superimposed by rotation. Reducing sugars contain an aldehyde or ketone group. These are reducing sugars. Glucose is a reducing sugar when it is in its open form. Some common hexoses . Some carbohydrate vocabulary. Epimers- 2 sugars that differ in conFguration around just one carbon. Examples of epimers are glucose and galactose. Some carbohydrate vocabulary. The anomeric carbon is the carbon on the aldehyde or ketone that reacts with a hydroxyl group to form the cyclic structure. Hemiacetals & hemiketals- The cyclic form that some sugars can make, when one of the hydroxyl groups reacts with the aldehyde or ketone carbon. The anomeric carbon of glucose. Some carbohydrate vocabulary. Pyranoses- carbohydrates that form 6 membered rings....
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2011 for the course CH 369 taught by Professor Kbrowning during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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ch369_3-1_carbs_notes - Carbohydrates Chapter 11 (material...

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