ntr315 - pregnancy

ntr315 - pregnancy - Pregnancy 10 Physiologic changes with...

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Pregnancy 10. Physiologic changes with the gastro-intestinal tract, blood volume, breast development, cardiac, respiratory · Plasma increase about 50% during pregnancy and red blood cells increase at about 35%. As blood volume increases it cause hemodilution- more liquid in blood so it dilute the nutrients that are there. Ex) hemoglobin. Increase in blood volume is positively correlated with an increase in birth weight. · Increase in heart rate · Gi tract is relaxed and women experience constipation · Heartburn in the first few months and last few months of pregnancy. Indigestion-gastric reflux. Progesterone stimulates breast development 11. What is hemodilution and why does it happen? An increase in the volume of plasma, resulting in a decreased concentration of cells in blood (thinner blood); this is usually caused by an influx of fluid. 12. What causes constipation during pregnancy? What are the dietary recommendations to avoid constipation. Constipation occurs in many women, due to hormones that relax the intestinal muscle and the pressure of the expanding uterus on the intestines. Relaxation of the intestinal muscle causes food and waste to move slower through your system. Iron supplements can also cause constipation It is recommend to increase fiber and fluid intake. Moderate exercise may also help. 13. Compare nutrient recommendations before and during pregnancy Iron: pre-pregnancy- 18 mg / during - 27mg (need supplement) Vitamin D: during pregnancy - 200IU or 5mcg Calcium: pre-pregnancy and during- 1000mg you don't need to increase until third trimester just make sure you get enough Protein: pre-pregancy - 47 grams (about) / during pregnancy- additional 25grams per day 1.1 gram per kgram of bodyweight for a girl 14 yrs of age and older Omega 3 fatty acids: during pregnancy 250mg Folate: pre-pregnacy 400 mcg DFE per day / during- 600 mcg DFE ( 400mcg from fortified foods or supplements 200 mcg from natural foods) if you have delivered an NTD baby before it is recommended you have 4000mcg 14. List the common side effects of iron supplementation -the body does not absorb as much iron if taken in conjunction with other supplements (competes with calcium, magnesium, and zinc) -the lower your iron stores, the more iron your body will absorb -as the dose of iron increases, the amount absorbed decreases
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-nausea, cramps, gas, intestinal distress,and constipation are associated with the presence of iron in the intestines, the side effects increase as doses of supplementation increase. -too much iron decreases the absorption of other minerals (especially zinc), promotes free radicals, inflammation, and can damage the cell lining in the GI tract 15. Adverse Outcomes associated with maternal overweight/ high weight gain Maternal risk hypertensive disorders gestational diabetes labor / delivery difficulty post partum weight retention Infant risk they can be large for gestational age (LGA) - microsomia (greater than 10% of birth
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ntr315 - pregnancy - Pregnancy 10 Physiologic changes with...

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