ntr307 tests2 - Flour Flour Mixes Pasta Durum wheat hard...

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Pasta Durum wheat: hard wheat, high protein content Semolina (coarsely-ground durum wheat) Water and Sometimes egg yolks (egg noodles) Pasta dough extruded through disks of different shapes and then dried Copper dies (soft and wear out quickly) give pasta a rough, textured surface which holds onto sauce better than the smooth surface produced from tougher, Teflon dies Types of styles (5): Strings (best for olive oil); Ribbons (best for cream); Tubes (best for cheese / heavy sauces) Shapes (best for heavy sauces / deep ridges hold sauce); Micro pastas (best for broth/soups) Pasta types Egg Noodles Whole wheat Flavored: vegetable purees or herbs added Fanciful: shapes High Protein: soy flour, whey, or dairy added Fresh: hasn’t been dried as much (refrigerated), Couscous: cooked and dried to small pieces Soba noodles – buckwheat flour, Rice noodles – rice flour Preparing: don’t add oil to water – it prevents sauce adhesion, “Al dente” means “to the tooth” Don’t rinse pasta after cooking: starch left on the pasta helps the sauce stick to it Flour: Fine powder derived from seeds or other starchy foods Wheat is most common, but also from oat, rye, barley, rice, corn Non-cereals sources – Soy, potato, buckwheat, manioc, arrowroot Types of wheat flour: -Whole Wheat flour (contains bran & germ) -Bread flour (12-14% protein), -All - Purpose (10 - 11% protein) -Pastry (8-9% protein), -Cake (6-7% protein), -Instant, -Self-rising (baking soda) Yeast Bread – Yeast produces CO 2 gas via fermentation causing bread to rise Quick Bread – Leavened w/ air, steam, and/or CO 2 from baking soda or powder Gelatinization occurs when heated contributing to crumb structure Crumb : The texture of a baked product’s interior Gluten : The protein portion of wheat flour with elastic characteristics for structure 3 requirement for gluten development: Water: Hydrates gluten ; proteins absorb H 2 O, unfold and interact crosslinking to form gluten Manipulation (Kneading): develops elasticity and plasticity and aligns molecules to be stable Wheat flour - Protein: Gliadin / Glutenin And Lipids: (1-1.5%) separate/lubricate layers of gluten (Contributes to proper dough expansion) Sliding = Lipids develop gluten by helping them “slide” by each other Natural aging: Flour stored over several months naturally whitens & improves Oxidizes pigments whitens (bleaching) Oxidizes to form disulfide bonds (S-S) in gluten improves quality (elasticity) – Aging Chemical aging: Bleaching/ Maturing agents: Speeds up aging by oxidizing pigments & sulfur groups on gluten
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Benzoyl peroxide=Chlorine gas (bleaching)
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ntr307 tests2 - Flour Flour Mixes Pasta Durum wheat hard...

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