ntr326test4 - OVERVIEW OF LIPIDS 1,000s of compounds...

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OVERVIEW OF LIPIDS 1,000s of compounds soluble in organic solvents (chloroform) which include fat soluble vitamins. Important for energy production and membrane structure Fatty acid Naming methods of double bonds. Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated delta ( ) system – counts from carboxyl end Omega-3, Omega-6, Omega-9 omega ( ϖ ) system – counts from methyl end Long chain, short chain n system – counts from methyl end Eicosanoid – FA derivatives (100s of them) *Carbons add or remove from carboxyl end. Thus the system changes with FA metabolism but ϖ and n systems don’t. Triglyceride *Overall structure is determined by the type of fatty acids. Structure glycerol backbone + 3 fatty acids Purpose: Energy, Insulation Phospholipid Types: vary polar head group, glycophospholipids Structure – glycerol backbone + 2 fatty acids + 1 polar headgroup * Overall structure is determined by the type of fatty acids. Major component of membranes Exception to the rule is Sphingomeylin. Structure – sphingoid backbone + 1 fatty acid (usually saturated) Sphingomyelin (SPH), a type of sphingolipid found in cell membranes, (mainly in myelin sheath which surrounds nerve cell axons). Consist of phosphorylcholine and ceramide, signifies ~85% of all sphingolipids. Black : Sphingosine Red : Phosphocholine Blue: Fatty acid Cholesterol Structure – 4 cyclic rings All steroids have this same 4-ring core. Cholesterol ester - Fatty acid added to hydroxyl group. Physiologically important steroids: Corticosteroid hormones, Sex hormones, Bile acids
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Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Cholesterol is a single molecule. The``Good'' and ``Bad'' refer to the cholesterol carrier. VLDL: Very Low-Density Lipoprotein: Transports cholesterol from liver to tissue. LDL: Low-Density Lipoprotein: Further transport cholesterol to tissue. HDL: High-Density Lipoprotein: Transports cholesterol from tissue to liver for ``disposal''. Lipids and Membranes Classes of lipids: Fatty Acids, Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Steroids Lipoproteins; Membranes - Structure and Transport Fatty Acids Carboxylic acids, Mostly Non-polar found in low concentrations Polar Head group: Carboxylate (-COO o 1 ) at physiological pH Structure: Hydrocarbon chain (4 to 24 carbons long) unbranched -All even carbon numbers (plants may have odd carbon #) Carboxyl end (hydrophilic) Methyl end (hydrophobic) ``Unsaturation (double bonds are cis or trans); Cis double bond bends the hydrocarbon chain, Trans does not Saturated Fatty Acids ; No carbon carbon double bonds Lowest energy structure is about linear Unsaturated Fatty Acids; Contains cis C=C Monounsaturated - only 1 C=C Polyunsaturated - more than 1 C=C Lower melting points Nomenclature: Linoleic acid Following system used: 18:2 A 9,12 Example: CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 4 -CH=CH-CH 2 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 7 -COOH 18: number of C in chain 2: # of C=C double bonds 9, 12: Position of C=C (starting with COOH) Fats in Our Diet Trans Fats: Saturated: solid, more stable Essential Fatty Acids: Humans unable to synthesize Unsaturated: liquid Ex. linoleic (18:2 A 9,12 ) and linolenic (18:3 A 9,12,15 )
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2011 for the course NTR 312 taught by Professor Steinman during the Spring '11 term at Missouri (Mizzou).

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ntr326test4 - OVERVIEW OF LIPIDS 1,000s of compounds...

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