Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 76Frogs will eat flies Fish can see Those students read books. Sue won and so on. (Diagram these if it is not obvious what the structure is.) We can also make our AP rule less trivial, so that Adverbs are allowed. AP (Adv) A For instance: very tall. 14.Curly brackets for “or” One other complication in the notation for phrase structure rules. We find that a NP can begin either with an Article orwith a possessive NP, but not both. Article: the book, a book, this book, those books NP: Fred’s book, the king of England’s book, my book not both: *the Fred’s book, *the king of England’s this book, *those my books Here is a simple way to account for this: we use curly brackets in the rules to me “one or the other, but not both” (logicians call this “exclusive or”). The basic NP phrase structure rule for English comes out something like this: NP ArtNP(AP) N (PP) This means that you can start out an NP with an Article, or an NP, then continue with the rest (optional Adjective, obligatory Noun, optional PP). Examples of each type: thelong book about linguistics (beginning with Article) the king’slong book about linguistics (beginning with NP)
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