Hayes
Introductory Linguistics
p. 76
Frogs will eat flies
Fish can see
Those students read books.
Sue won
and so on.
(Diagram these if it is not obvious what the structure is.)
We can also make our AP rule less trivial, so that Adverbs are allowed.
AP
(Adv) A
For instance:
very tall
.
14.
Curly brackets for “or”
One other complication in the notation for phrase structure rules.
We find that a NP can
begin
either
with an Article
or
with a possessive NP, but not both.
Article:
the book, a book, this book, those books
NP:
Fred’s book, the king of England’s book, my book
not both:
*the Fred’s book, *the king of England’s this book, *those my books
Here is a simple way to account for this:
we use curly brackets in the rules to me “one or the
other, but not both” (logicians call this “exclusive or”).
The basic NP phrase structure rule for
English comes out something like this:
NP
Art
NP
(AP) N (PP)
This means that you can start out an NP with an Article, or an NP, then continue with the rest
(optional Adjective, obligatory Noun, optional PP).
Examples of each type:
the
long book about linguistics
(beginning with Article)
the king’s
long book about linguistics
(beginning with NP)

This
** preview**
has intentionally

**sections.**

*blurred***to view the full version.**

*Sign up*