Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 14813.Update of Phrase Structure Rules [ note to self: this belongs a few pages earlier, under subcategorization. 2010: better late than never. ] Here are the last two steps in our gradual update of the phrase structure rules. 13.1S¯ as daughter of NP In the discuss of subcategorization above (p. 117), we found that there are a few nouns that subcategorize for S¯. Typically these are nouns that express beliefs or statements, such as belief, claim, assertion, and so on. Thus, the NP phrase structure rule has to include the option of an S¯ under NP. NP ArtNP(AP)* N (PP)*(S¯) A long NP that includes every possibility for the main NP phrase structure rule is the following: NP S¯ S PP VP NP AP NP NP NP | | | | N A N P N Comp N V Art N | | | | | | | | | | Bill’s forthright assertion to Fred that television has no future. Further example sentences showing the S¯ option are as follows: Fred’s belief[S¯that he is a genius ] George’s insistence[S¯that he be included ] the claim[S¯that this structure is an island ] Sally’s assertion[S¯that we should eat pasta ] Note that all of these nouns are created by a rule of word formation from verbs that themselves categorize for S¯ (believe, insist, claim, assert). (Others are not, however: hypothesis, hunch.)
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