Week4-2

Week4-2 - Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 148 13. Update...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 148 13. Update of Phrase Structure Rules [ note to self: this belongs a few pages earlier, under subcategorization. 2010: better late than never. ] Here are the last two steps in our gradual update of the phrase structure rules. 13.1 S ¯ as daughter of NP In the discuss of subcategorization above (p. 117), we found that there are a few nouns that subcategorize for S ¯. Typically these are nouns that express beliefs or statements, such as belief , claim , assertion , and so on. Thus, the NP phrase structure rule has to include the option of an S ¯ under NP. NP Art NP (AP)* N (PP)*(S ¯) A long NP that includes every possibility for the main NP phrase structure rule is the following: NP S ¯ S PP VP NP AP NP NP NP | | | | N A N P N Comp N V Art N | | | | | | | | | | Bill’s forthright assertion to Fred that television has no future. Further example sentences showing the S ¯ option are as follows: Fred’s belief [ S ¯ that he is a genius ] George’s insistence [ S ¯ that he be included ] the claim [ S ¯ that this structure is an island ] Sally’s assertion [ S ¯ that we should eat pasta ] Note that all of these nouns are created by a rule of word formation from verbs that themselves categorize for S ¯ ( believe , insist , claim , assert ). (Others are not, however: hypothesis , hunch. )
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 149 In passing, observe that there is another kind of S ¯ that can occur as part of an NP. It is not subcategorized. You can tell that it is different because it includes a gap. the turtles [ S ¯ that we caught ___ in the pond ] the beliefs [ S ¯ that we hold ___ ] the king [ S ¯ who the peasant deposed ___ last year ] This is called a relative clause ; we won’t have the time to analyze them here. To see the difference between subcategorized S ¯’s and relative clauses, it may help to observe that you can get both of them in the same NP: the assertion [ S ¯ that we should eat pasta ] [ S ¯ that you made ___ ] head of NP Subcategorized S ¯ S ¯ forming a relative clause 13.2 AP as daughter of VP The Persian homework had the VP raftani ast , ‘go-incipient adjective be-3 singular present’. This implies a phrase structure rule VP AP V. English has the same thing, only in verb-initial order: V V AP Fred is sick. Bill looks tired. Alice seems very friendly. These three examples make use of three of the (fairly unusual) verbs of English that subcategorize for an AP. 13.3 Final phrase structure rule list Putting all of these together, we have the phrase structure rules shown: S NP (Aux) VP NP Art NP (AP)* N (PP)*(S ¯) NP Pronoun VP V (NP) (NP) (PP)* (S ¯) VP V AP PP P NP S (Comp) S
Background image of page 2
Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 150 NP NP (Conj NP)* VP VP (Conj VP)* PP PP (Conj PP)* S S (Conj S)* S S (Conj S )* V V (Conj V)*
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/02/2011 for the course LING 20 taught by Professor Schutze during the Fall '08 term at UCLA.

Page1 / 21

Week4-2 - Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 148 13. Update...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online